Global exchange and accumulation of non-native plants

Mark Van Kleunen*, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Jan Pergl, Marten Winter, Ewald Weber, Holger Kreft, Patrick Weigelt, John Kartesz, Misako Nishino, Liubov A. Antonova, Julie F. Barcelona, Francisco J. Cabezas, Dairon Cárdenas, Juliana Cárdenas-Toro, Nicolás Castaño, Eduardo Chacón, Cyrille Chatelain, Aleksandr L. Ebel, Estrela FigueiredoNicol Fuentes, Quentin J. Groom, Lesley Henderson, Inderjit, Andrey Kupriyanov, Silvana Masciadri, Jan Meerman, Olga Morozova, Dietmar Moser, Daniel L. Nickrent, Annette Patzelt, Pieter B. Pelser, María P. Baptiste, Manop Poopath, Maria Schulze, Hanno Seebens, Wen Sheng Shu, Jacob Thomas, Mauricio Velayos, Jan J. Wieringa, Petr Pyšek

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

621 Citations (Scopus)


All around the globe, humans have greatly altered the abiotic and biotic environment with ever-increasing speed. One defining feature of the Anthropocene epoch is the erosion of biogeographical barriers by human-mediated dispersal of species into new regions, where they can naturalize and cause ecological, economic and social damage. So far, no comprehensive analysis of the global accumulation and exchange of alien plant species between continents has been performed, primarily because of a lack of data. Here we bridge this knowledge gap by using a unique global database on the occurrences of naturalized alien plant species in 481 mainland and 362 island regions. In total, 13,168 plant species, corresponding to 3.9% of the extant global vascular flora, or approximately the size of the native European flora, have become naturalized somewhere on the globe as a result of human activity. North America has accumulated the largest number of naturalized species, whereas the Pacific Islands show the fastest increase in species numbers with respect to their land area. Continents in the Northern Hemisphere have been the major donors of naturalized alien species to all other continents. Our results quantify for the first time the extent of plant naturalizations worldwide, and illustrate the urgent need for globally integrated efforts to control, manage and understand the spread of alien species.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)100-103
Issue number7567
Publication statusPublished - 2015


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