Genome-wide analysis of the barley MAPK gene family and its expression patterns in relation to Puccinia hordei infection

Pavel Křenek*, Rients E. Niks, Anton Vels, Petra Vyplelová, Jozef Šamaj

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been shown to act as key regulators of stress responses in model plant and crop species. So far, however, the MAPK family has not been systematically studied in barley. Herein, we identified 16 HvMAPKs (Hv—Hordeum vulgare) based on computational analysis of barley transcriptomics and genomics databases. HvMAPKs contain all canonical MAPK domains, except for HvMPK2, which lacks a MAPK domain signature. In addition, five HvMAPKs harbor TEY and ten HvMAPKs harbor TDY dual phosphorylation motif in the activation loop. Interestingly, HvMPK2 contains a MEY instead of TEY phosphorylation motif. We classified HvMAPKs into four major plant MAPK clades based on phylogeny reconstruction and anchored all HvMAPK genes to five out of seven barley chromosomes. Furthermore, we inoculated seedlings of susceptible barley line L94 and its isolines L94-Rph3 and L94-Rph7 with rust fungus Pucciniahordei and analyzed the expression of 16 HvMAPK genes using qRT-PCR at 1–4.5 days post inoculation. In total, six HvMAPK genes exhibited significantly altered expression by P. hordei infection. The expression of HvMPK5, HvMPK6, HvMPK7 and HvMPK12 (set one genes) was strongly induced especially during effector-triggered immunity (ETI), whereas the expression of HvMPK2 and HvMPK17 (set two genes) was specifically downregulated during ETI. Yet the expression of HvMPK8 was also specifically but weakly downregulated during ETI. Overall, the expression patterns suggest that set one genes positively regulate ETI in barley–P. hordei pathosystem, whereas set two genes negatively regulate ETI and/or programmed cell death in this pathosystem.

Original languageEnglish
Article number254
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalActa Physiologiae Plantarum
Volume37
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Fingerprint

Puccinia hordei
Hordeum
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
mitogen-activated protein kinase
barley
Genome
Immunity
genome
immunity
Infection
infection
Genes
genes
phosphorylation
Down-Regulation
Phosphorylation
isogenic lines
Phylogeny
Genomics
transcriptomics

Keywords

  • Barley (Hordeumvulgare)
  • Barley leaf rust (Pucciniahordei)
  • Effector-triggered immunity (ETI)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)
  • qRT-PCR
  • Resistance

Cite this

@article{9a4a97ef58444e378335a6f95b680ea1,
title = "Genome-wide analysis of the barley MAPK gene family and its expression patterns in relation to Puccinia hordei infection",
abstract = "Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been shown to act as key regulators of stress responses in model plant and crop species. So far, however, the MAPK family has not been systematically studied in barley. Herein, we identified 16 HvMAPKs (Hv—Hordeum vulgare) based on computational analysis of barley transcriptomics and genomics databases. HvMAPKs contain all canonical MAPK domains, except for HvMPK2, which lacks a MAPK domain signature. In addition, five HvMAPKs harbor TEY and ten HvMAPKs harbor TDY dual phosphorylation motif in the activation loop. Interestingly, HvMPK2 contains a MEY instead of TEY phosphorylation motif. We classified HvMAPKs into four major plant MAPK clades based on phylogeny reconstruction and anchored all HvMAPK genes to five out of seven barley chromosomes. Furthermore, we inoculated seedlings of susceptible barley line L94 and its isolines L94-Rph3 and L94-Rph7 with rust fungus Pucciniahordei and analyzed the expression of 16 HvMAPK genes using qRT-PCR at 1–4.5 days post inoculation. In total, six HvMAPK genes exhibited significantly altered expression by P. hordei infection. The expression of HvMPK5, HvMPK6, HvMPK7 and HvMPK12 (set one genes) was strongly induced especially during effector-triggered immunity (ETI), whereas the expression of HvMPK2 and HvMPK17 (set two genes) was specifically downregulated during ETI. Yet the expression of HvMPK8 was also specifically but weakly downregulated during ETI. Overall, the expression patterns suggest that set one genes positively regulate ETI in barley–P. hordei pathosystem, whereas set two genes negatively regulate ETI and/or programmed cell death in this pathosystem.",
keywords = "Barley (Hordeumvulgare), Barley leaf rust (Pucciniahordei), Effector-triggered immunity (ETI), Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), qRT-PCR, Resistance",
author = "Pavel Křenek and Niks, {Rients E.} and Anton Vels and Petra Vyplelov{\'a} and Jozef Šamaj",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1007/s11738-015-2010-9",
language = "English",
volume = "37",
pages = "1--16",
journal = "Acta Physiologiae Plantarum",
issn = "0137-5881",
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}

Genome-wide analysis of the barley MAPK gene family and its expression patterns in relation to Puccinia hordei infection. / Křenek, Pavel; Niks, Rients E.; Vels, Anton; Vyplelová, Petra; Šamaj, Jozef.

In: Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, Vol. 37, No. 11, 254, 2015, p. 1-16.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Genome-wide analysis of the barley MAPK gene family and its expression patterns in relation to Puccinia hordei infection

AU - Křenek, Pavel

AU - Niks, Rients E.

AU - Vels, Anton

AU - Vyplelová, Petra

AU - Šamaj, Jozef

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been shown to act as key regulators of stress responses in model plant and crop species. So far, however, the MAPK family has not been systematically studied in barley. Herein, we identified 16 HvMAPKs (Hv—Hordeum vulgare) based on computational analysis of barley transcriptomics and genomics databases. HvMAPKs contain all canonical MAPK domains, except for HvMPK2, which lacks a MAPK domain signature. In addition, five HvMAPKs harbor TEY and ten HvMAPKs harbor TDY dual phosphorylation motif in the activation loop. Interestingly, HvMPK2 contains a MEY instead of TEY phosphorylation motif. We classified HvMAPKs into four major plant MAPK clades based on phylogeny reconstruction and anchored all HvMAPK genes to five out of seven barley chromosomes. Furthermore, we inoculated seedlings of susceptible barley line L94 and its isolines L94-Rph3 and L94-Rph7 with rust fungus Pucciniahordei and analyzed the expression of 16 HvMAPK genes using qRT-PCR at 1–4.5 days post inoculation. In total, six HvMAPK genes exhibited significantly altered expression by P. hordei infection. The expression of HvMPK5, HvMPK6, HvMPK7 and HvMPK12 (set one genes) was strongly induced especially during effector-triggered immunity (ETI), whereas the expression of HvMPK2 and HvMPK17 (set two genes) was specifically downregulated during ETI. Yet the expression of HvMPK8 was also specifically but weakly downregulated during ETI. Overall, the expression patterns suggest that set one genes positively regulate ETI in barley–P. hordei pathosystem, whereas set two genes negatively regulate ETI and/or programmed cell death in this pathosystem.

AB - Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been shown to act as key regulators of stress responses in model plant and crop species. So far, however, the MAPK family has not been systematically studied in barley. Herein, we identified 16 HvMAPKs (Hv—Hordeum vulgare) based on computational analysis of barley transcriptomics and genomics databases. HvMAPKs contain all canonical MAPK domains, except for HvMPK2, which lacks a MAPK domain signature. In addition, five HvMAPKs harbor TEY and ten HvMAPKs harbor TDY dual phosphorylation motif in the activation loop. Interestingly, HvMPK2 contains a MEY instead of TEY phosphorylation motif. We classified HvMAPKs into four major plant MAPK clades based on phylogeny reconstruction and anchored all HvMAPK genes to five out of seven barley chromosomes. Furthermore, we inoculated seedlings of susceptible barley line L94 and its isolines L94-Rph3 and L94-Rph7 with rust fungus Pucciniahordei and analyzed the expression of 16 HvMAPK genes using qRT-PCR at 1–4.5 days post inoculation. In total, six HvMAPK genes exhibited significantly altered expression by P. hordei infection. The expression of HvMPK5, HvMPK6, HvMPK7 and HvMPK12 (set one genes) was strongly induced especially during effector-triggered immunity (ETI), whereas the expression of HvMPK2 and HvMPK17 (set two genes) was specifically downregulated during ETI. Yet the expression of HvMPK8 was also specifically but weakly downregulated during ETI. Overall, the expression patterns suggest that set one genes positively regulate ETI in barley–P. hordei pathosystem, whereas set two genes negatively regulate ETI and/or programmed cell death in this pathosystem.

KW - Barley (Hordeumvulgare)

KW - Barley leaf rust (Pucciniahordei)

KW - Effector-triggered immunity (ETI)

KW - Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)

KW - qRT-PCR

KW - Resistance

U2 - 10.1007/s11738-015-2010-9

DO - 10.1007/s11738-015-2010-9

M3 - Article

VL - 37

SP - 1

EP - 16

JO - Acta Physiologiae Plantarum

JF - Acta Physiologiae Plantarum

SN - 0137-5881

IS - 11

M1 - 254

ER -