Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is recognized by TLR2. TLR10 can act as an inhibitory receptor on TLR2-derived immune responses. Therefore, we investigated the role of TLR10 on C. burnetii-induced cytokine production and assessed whether genetic polymorphisms in TLR10 influences the development of chronic Q fever. HEK293 cells, transfected with TLR2, TLR10 or TLR2/TLR10, and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the presence of anti-TLR10, were stimulated with C. burnetii. In both assays, the absence of TLR10 resulted in increased cytokine responses after C. burnetii stimulation. In addition, the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR10 was examined in healthy volunteers whose PBMCs were stimulated with C. burnetii Nine Mile or the Dutch outbreak isolate C. burnetii 3262. Individuals bearing SNPs in TLR10 displayed increased cytokine production upon C. burnetii 3262 stimulation. Furthermore, 139 chronic Q fever patients and 220 controls were genotyped for TLR10 N241H, I775V and I369L. None of these polymorphisms were associated with increased susceptibility to chronic Q fever. In conclusion, TLR10 has an inhibitory effect on in vitro cytokine production by C. burnetii, but the presence of TLR10 polymorphisms does not lead to an increased risk of developing chronic Q fever.
- Coxiella burnetii
- Innate immunity
- Q fever
- Single nucleotide polymorphism
- Toll-like receptor 10