We studied the effects of landscape structure, habitat loss and fragmentation on genetic differentiation of Moor frog populations in two landscapes in The Netherlands (Drenthe and Noord-Brabant). Microsatellite data of eight loci showed small to moderate genetic differentiation among populations in both landscapes (F ST values 0.022 and 0.060, respectively). Both heterozygosity and population differentiation indicate a lower level of gene flow among populations in Noord-Brabant, where populations were further apart and have experienced a higher degree of fragmentation for a longer period of time as compared to populations in Drenthe. A significant isolation-by-distance pattern was found in Drenthe, indicating a limitation in dispersal among populations due to geographic distance. In Noord-Brabant a similar positive correlation was obtained only after the exclusion of a single long-time isolated population. After randomised exclusion of populations a significant additional negative effect of roads was found but not of other landscape elements. These results are discussed in view of improving methodology of assessing the effects of landscape elements on connectivity.
- landscape genetics