Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed gynecological findings in dairy cattle. It causes temporary infertility and is likely to affect reproduction as well as production parameters in cows. The objectives of this study were to investigate the heritability of COD in a Dutch Black and White population and to estimate the genetic and phenotypic relationships with milk production traits. In the data set used, the overall incidence of COD was 7.7ø1204 COD diagnoses in 15,562 lactations). The farm incidence varied between 1.9 and 11.3ÐThe estimated heritabilities on the underlying and observable scales were 0.102 and 0.087, respectively. The genetic correlations between COD and 305-d milk, fat, and protein yields were 0.345, 0.379, and 0.441, respectively. We concluded that a genetic predisposition for COD exists in Dutch Black and White dairy cattle. The genetic correlations between COD and yield traits indicate that ongoing selection for production will increase the incidence of COD.