Genetic disposition and response of blood lipids to diet : studies on gene-diet interaction in humans

R.M. Weggemans

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WU

Abstract

<p>Even though a cholesterol-lowering diet is effective for most people, it is not for all. Identification of genetic determinants of the serum lipid response to diet may be of help in the identification of subjects who will not benefit from a cholesterol-lowering diet. It may also clarify the role of certain proteins in cholesterol metabolism. The objective of our research was to determine whether genetic polymorphisms affect the response of serum lipids to diet in humans.</p><p>We first assessed sex differences in the response of serum lipids to changes in the diet. Men had larger responses of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to saturated fat and cafestol than women. There were no sex differences in the responses to trans fat and dietary cholesterol. We also used these data to study the effect of 11 genetic polymorphisms on responses of serum lipids to the various dietary treatments. Apoprotein E, A4 347 and 360, and cholesteryl-ester transfer protein TaqIb polymorphisms affected the lipid response to diet slightly.</p><p>We further studied the effect of the apoprotein A4 360-1/2 polymorphism on response of serum lipids to dietary cholesterol in a controlled trial specially designed for this purpose. The apoprotein A4 360-1/2 polymorphism did not affect the response of serum lipids to a change in the intake of cholesterol in a group of healthy Dutch subjects who consumed a background diet high in saturated fat.</p><p>Although it is not directly related to genetic polymorphisms and lipid response, we finally reviewed the effect of dietary cholesterol on the ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is a more specific predictor of coronary heart disease than either lipid value alone. Dietary cholesterol raised the ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.</p><p>In conclusion, the effect of genetic polymorphisms on serum lipid response to diet is small. It is therefore not possible to identify individuals who will not benefit from a cholesterol-lowering diet on the basis of a specific genetic polymorphism.</p>
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Wageningen University
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Katan, M.B., Promotor
  • Zock, P.L., Promotor
Award date17 Jan 2001
Place of PublicationS.l.
Print ISBNs9789058083388
Publication statusPublished - 2001

Keywords

  • human nutrition research
  • genetic variation
  • genetic polymorphism
  • blood lipids
  • diet studies
  • low cholesterol diets

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