Genetic by environment interactions on growth of sole, Solea solea

J. Mas-Munoz, R.J.W. Blonk, J. Komen, J.W. Schrama, J.A.M. van Arendonk

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstract


Sole has a high potential for commercial marine aquaculture in Europe because of its consumer's popularity and high market values. Until now, the production of sole in the Netherlands has been carried out in intensive recirculation systems. Extensive rearing of sole in polyculture pond systems is expected to become more important in future coastal zone development in the Netherlands. The only breeding program for sole has been executed in an intensive rearing system. However, if there is a large degree of genotype by environment interaction, sole selected for high growth in intensive systems will not perform well in extensive systems, and vice versa. It is hypothesized that differences in environmental factors present in the different rearing systems (e.g., food type, feeding method, presence of substrate, light intensity) will have an effect on the genotypic selection for growth. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to assess the extent of genotype by environment interaction for growth of sole (Solea solea). Common sole (Solea solea, n=3000) offspring were produced by natural mating from approximately 95 parents in a commercial intensive farm. Juvenile sole with initial body weight of 60 20 (mean SD) were randomly assigned to one of the two following environments: (1) Intensive recirculation aquaculture system (RAS), consisting of four raceways with no sand and with artificial light. In this system fish were stocked at densities of 0.023m2/fish and fed with dry pelleted feed; (2) Extensive ponds system, consisting of ponds with 20 cm of sand layer and natural light. In this system, fish were stoked at densities of 7m2/fish, and fed on live ragworms present in the substrate . At the start of the experiment all fish were blood sampled for DNA genotyping, tagged and weighed. The growth period was of 6 months, after which all fish were individually weighed and sexed. Genetic relationships between animals were estimated using a molecular relatedness estimator as parental information was incomplete and thus pedigree reconstruction was not possible. In ponds 1304 fish (1107 males and 196 females) and in RAS 1188 fish (1022 males and 166 females) were recovered at the end of the experiment. As expected, females grew (%BW/d) significantly more than males (0.65 0.01 vs. 0.52 0.0, P
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2012
EventInternational conference on Global Aquaculture “Securing our future” AQUA 2012 -
Duration: 1 Sept 20125 Sept 2012


ConferenceInternational conference on Global Aquaculture “Securing our future” AQUA 2012


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