Background: Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) is associated with several pathologies. Gene–diet interactions related to Hcy might be used to customize dietary advice to reduce disease incidence. To explore this possibility, we investigated interactions between anthropometry, biochemical markers and diet and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in relation to Hcy concentrations. Five SNPs of Hcy-metabolizing enzymes were analyzed in 2010 black South Africans. Results: Hcy was higher with each additional methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T minor allele copy, but was lower in methionine synthase (MTR) 2756AA homozygotes than heterozygotes. Individuals harboring cystathionine β synthase (CBS) 833 T/844ins68 had lower Hcy concentrations than others. No interactive effects were observed with any of the anthropometrical markers. MTHFR C677T and CBS T833C/844ins68 homozygote minor allele carriers presented with lower Hcy as high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) increased. Hcy concentrations were negatively associated with dietary protein and animal protein intake in the TT and TC genotypes, but positively in the CC genotype of CBS T833C/844ins68. Hcy was markedly higher in TT homozygotes of MTHFR C677T as added sugar intake increased. In CBS T833C/844ins68 major allele carriers, biotin intake was negatively associated with Hcy; but positively in those harboring the homozygous minor allele. Conclusions: The Hcy–SNP associations are modulated by diet and open up the possibility of invoking dietary interventions to treat hyperhomocysteinemia. Future intervention trials should further explore the observed gene–diet and gene–blood lipid interactions.
- Blood lipid–gene interactions
- Gene–diet interactions
- Nutrient–gene interactions
- Precision nutrition
- Total homocysteine