The epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) acts as a barrier to uptake of potentially dangerous material while allowing absorption of processed food. The gut may be exposed to a diverse range of engineered nanomaterials due to their deliberate addition to food and consumer products and in the form of particulate delivery vehicles for drugs and vaccines, and inadvertently via contaminated food and water and after efflux of material from the respiratory tract. The extent of inadvertent ingestion of nanomaterials is not currently known, but it is nevertheless prudent to assess interactions of nanomaterials with GIT cells in order to assess the potential impact of nanomaterial uptake. Although nanomaterial toxicity within the GIT has been much less extensively studied than that at other interfaces or compartments, over the past decade a number of studies have begun to address the impact, behavior, and interaction of nanomaterials in the GIT. Some reports suggest that GIT cells may be less responsive to nanomaterial toxicity, but it is also clear that nanomaterials may affect the function of cultured GIT epithelial cells in ways that are not detected by standard toxicity assays. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge of the uptake and potential toxicity of nanomaterials in the gut and highlights potential research priorities.
|Title of host publication||Adverse Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials|
|Subtitle of host publication||Exposure, Toxicology, and Impact on Human Health|
|Editors||Bengt Fadeel, Antonio Pietroiusti, Anna A. Shvedova|
|Publisher||Elsevier Inc. Academic Press|
|Publication status||Published - 2017|
- Gastrointestinal tract
- Respiratory tract