Fusarium spp. in Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta): From Colonization to Infection

Claudia Cafarchia*, Romina Paradies, Luciana A. Figueredo, Roberta Iatta, Salvatore Desantis, Antonio Vito Francesco Di Bello, Nicola Zizzo, Anne D. van Diepeningen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

With the aim of evaluating the presence of Fusarium spp. in sea turtles with and without lesions and assessing the risk factors favoring colonization and/or infection, 74 loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) admitted to rescue and rehabilitation clinics in Italy were analyzed. The study compared 31 individuals with no apparent macroscopic lesions and 43 individuals with macroscopic lesions. Shell and skin samples were analyzed using Calcofluor white with 10% potassium hydroxide, standard histopathological examination, and fungal cultures. Fusarium spp. were isolated more frequently from animals with superficial lesions (39%) than from those with no macroscopic lesions (16%). Isolates from animals with superficial lesions were Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) lineages haplotypes 9, 12, and 27 (unnamed lineages), FSSC-2 (Fusarium keratoplasticum), Fusarium oxysporum (27%), and Fusarium brachygibbosum (3%). In contrast, only F. solani haplotypes 9 and 12 were isolated from animals with no macroscopic lesions. The presence of lesions was identified as a risk factor for the occurrence of Fusarium spp. Of the 74 animals, only 7 (9.5%) scored positive on microscopic examination with Calcofluor, and histological examination of those 7 animals revealed necrosis, inflammatory cells, and fungal hyphae in the carapace and skin. The results of this study suggest that fusariosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of shell and skin lesions in sea turtles. Direct examination using Calcofluor and potassium hydroxide was not useful to diagnose the infection. Histopathological examination and fungal culture should be performed to ensure correct treatment and infection control.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)139-146
JournalVeterinary Pathology
Volume57
Issue number1
Early online date29 Oct 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020

Fingerprint

Turtles
Caretta caretta
Fusarium
lesions (animal)
Infection
infection
Fusarium solani
potassium hydroxide
sea turtles
animals
skin (animal)
Skin
Haplotypes
Animal Shells
haplotypes
risk factors
Fusariosis
Hyphae
skin lesions
Infection Control

Keywords

  • bycatch
  • Caretta caretta
  • conservation
  • Fusarium
  • infection
  • loggerhead sea turtles
  • rehabilitation
  • skin

Cite this

Cafarchia, C., Paradies, R., Figueredo, L. A., Iatta, R., Desantis, S., Di Bello, A. V. F., ... van Diepeningen, A. D. (2020). Fusarium spp. in Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta): From Colonization to Infection. Veterinary Pathology, 57(1), 139-146. https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985819880347
Cafarchia, Claudia ; Paradies, Romina ; Figueredo, Luciana A. ; Iatta, Roberta ; Desantis, Salvatore ; Di Bello, Antonio Vito Francesco ; Zizzo, Nicola ; van Diepeningen, Anne D. / Fusarium spp. in Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta): From Colonization to Infection. In: Veterinary Pathology. 2020 ; Vol. 57, No. 1. pp. 139-146.
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abstract = "With the aim of evaluating the presence of Fusarium spp. in sea turtles with and without lesions and assessing the risk factors favoring colonization and/or infection, 74 loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) admitted to rescue and rehabilitation clinics in Italy were analyzed. The study compared 31 individuals with no apparent macroscopic lesions and 43 individuals with macroscopic lesions. Shell and skin samples were analyzed using Calcofluor white with 10{\%} potassium hydroxide, standard histopathological examination, and fungal cultures. Fusarium spp. were isolated more frequently from animals with superficial lesions (39{\%}) than from those with no macroscopic lesions (16{\%}). Isolates from animals with superficial lesions were Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) lineages haplotypes 9, 12, and 27 (unnamed lineages), FSSC-2 (Fusarium keratoplasticum), Fusarium oxysporum (27{\%}), and Fusarium brachygibbosum (3{\%}). In contrast, only F. solani haplotypes 9 and 12 were isolated from animals with no macroscopic lesions. The presence of lesions was identified as a risk factor for the occurrence of Fusarium spp. Of the 74 animals, only 7 (9.5{\%}) scored positive on microscopic examination with Calcofluor, and histological examination of those 7 animals revealed necrosis, inflammatory cells, and fungal hyphae in the carapace and skin. The results of this study suggest that fusariosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of shell and skin lesions in sea turtles. Direct examination using Calcofluor and potassium hydroxide was not useful to diagnose the infection. Histopathological examination and fungal culture should be performed to ensure correct treatment and infection control.",
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author = "Claudia Cafarchia and Romina Paradies and Figueredo, {Luciana A.} and Roberta Iatta and Salvatore Desantis and {Di Bello}, {Antonio Vito Francesco} and Nicola Zizzo and {van Diepeningen}, {Anne D.}",
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Cafarchia, C, Paradies, R, Figueredo, LA, Iatta, R, Desantis, S, Di Bello, AVF, Zizzo, N & van Diepeningen, AD 2020, 'Fusarium spp. in Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta): From Colonization to Infection', Veterinary Pathology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 139-146. https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985819880347

Fusarium spp. in Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta): From Colonization to Infection. / Cafarchia, Claudia; Paradies, Romina; Figueredo, Luciana A.; Iatta, Roberta; Desantis, Salvatore; Di Bello, Antonio Vito Francesco; Zizzo, Nicola; van Diepeningen, Anne D.

In: Veterinary Pathology, Vol. 57, No. 1, 01.2020, p. 139-146.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fusarium spp. in Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta): From Colonization to Infection

AU - Cafarchia, Claudia

AU - Paradies, Romina

AU - Figueredo, Luciana A.

AU - Iatta, Roberta

AU - Desantis, Salvatore

AU - Di Bello, Antonio Vito Francesco

AU - Zizzo, Nicola

AU - van Diepeningen, Anne D.

PY - 2020/1

Y1 - 2020/1

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KW - bycatch

KW - Caretta caretta

KW - conservation

KW - Fusarium

KW - infection

KW - loggerhead sea turtles

KW - rehabilitation

KW - skin

U2 - 10.1177/0300985819880347

DO - 10.1177/0300985819880347

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Cafarchia C, Paradies R, Figueredo LA, Iatta R, Desantis S, Di Bello AVF et al. Fusarium spp. in Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta): From Colonization to Infection. Veterinary Pathology. 2020 Jan;57(1):139-146. https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985819880347