Fusarium oxysporum effector clustering version 2: An updated pipeline to infer host range

Megan A. Brenes Guallar, Like Fokkens, Martijn Rep, Lidija Berke, Peter van Dam*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The fungus Fusarium oxysporum is infamous for its devastating effects on economically important crops worldwide. F. oxysporum isolates are grouped into formae speciales based on their ability to cause disease on different hosts. Assigning F. oxysporum strains to formae speciales using non-experimental procedures has proven to be challenging due to their genetic heterogeneity and polyphyletic nature. However, genetically diverse isolates of the same forma specialis encode similar repertoires of effectors, proteins that are secreted by the fungus and contribute to the establishment of compatibility with the host. Based on this observation, we previously designed the F. oxysporum Effector Clustering (FoEC) pipeline which is able to classify F. oxysporum strains by forma specialis based on hierarchical clustering of the presence of predicted putative effector sequences, solely using genome assemblies as input. Here we present the updated FoEC2 pipeline which is more user friendly, customizable and, due to multithreading, has improved scalability. It is designed as a Snakemake pipeline and incorporates a new interactive visualization app. We showcase FoEC2 by clustering 537 publicly available F. oxysporum genomes and further analysis of putative effector families as multiple sequence alignments. We confirm classification of isolates into formae speciales and are able to further identify their subtypes. The pipeline is available on github: https://github.com/pvdam3/FoEC2.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1012688
JournalFrontiers in Plant Science
Publication statusPublished - 19 Oct 2022


  • effector prediction
  • effectors
  • FoEC2
  • Fusarium oxysporum
  • host specificity
  • mimp
  • SIX genes
  • snakemake


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