Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: A review

S.J.A. van Kuijk, A.S.M. Sonnenberg, J.J.P. Baars, W.H. Hendriks, J.W. Cone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

75 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass, however, limits the effective utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose. Currently, most often chemical and/or physical treatments are used to degrade lignin. White rot fungi are selective lignin degraders and can be a potential alternative to current methods which involve potentially toxic chemicals and expensive equipment. This review provides an overview of research conducted to date on fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ruminant feeds. White rot fungi colonize lignocellulosic biomass, and during colonization produce enzymes, radicals and other small compounds to breakdown lignin. The mechanisms on how these fungi degrade lignin are not fully understood, but fungal strain, the origin of lignocellulose and culture conditions have a major effect on the process. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii are the most effective fungi to improve the nutritional value of biomass for ruminant nutrition. However, conclusions on the effectiveness of fungal delignification are difficult to draw due to a lack of standardized culture conditions and information on fungal strains used. Methods of analysis between studies are not uniform for both chemical analysis and in vitro degradation measurements. In vivo studies are limited in number and mostly describing digestibility after mushroom production, when the fungus has degraded cellulose to derive energy for fruit body development. Optimization of fungal pretreatment is required to shorten the process of delignification and make it more selective for lignin. In this respect, future research should focus on optimization of culture conditions and gene expression to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved and allow the development of superior fungal strains to degrade lignin in biomass.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)191-202
JournalBiotechnology Advances
Volume33
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Fingerprint

Lignin
Ruminants
Biomass
Fungi
Nutrition
Delignification
Cellulose
Coriolaceae
Pleurotus
Poisons
Agaricales
Nutritive Value
Plant Cells
Carbohydrates
Fruits
Gene expression
Cell Wall
Fruit
Enzymes
Gene Expression

Keywords

  • white-rot fungi
  • solid-state fermentation
  • in-vitro digestibility
  • chromatography mass-spectrometry
  • spent wheat straw
  • oil palm fronds
  • pleurotus-ostreatus
  • ceriporiopsis-subvermispora
  • chemical-composition
  • trametes-versicolor

Cite this

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abstract = "In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass, however, limits the effective utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose. Currently, most often chemical and/or physical treatments are used to degrade lignin. White rot fungi are selective lignin degraders and can be a potential alternative to current methods which involve potentially toxic chemicals and expensive equipment. This review provides an overview of research conducted to date on fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ruminant feeds. White rot fungi colonize lignocellulosic biomass, and during colonization produce enzymes, radicals and other small compounds to breakdown lignin. The mechanisms on how these fungi degrade lignin are not fully understood, but fungal strain, the origin of lignocellulose and culture conditions have a major effect on the process. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii are the most effective fungi to improve the nutritional value of biomass for ruminant nutrition. However, conclusions on the effectiveness of fungal delignification are difficult to draw due to a lack of standardized culture conditions and information on fungal strains used. Methods of analysis between studies are not uniform for both chemical analysis and in vitro degradation measurements. In vivo studies are limited in number and mostly describing digestibility after mushroom production, when the fungus has degraded cellulose to derive energy for fruit body development. Optimization of fungal pretreatment is required to shorten the process of delignification and make it more selective for lignin. In this respect, future research should focus on optimization of culture conditions and gene expression to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved and allow the development of superior fungal strains to degrade lignin in biomass.",
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pages = "191--202",
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Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: A review. / van Kuijk, S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

In: Biotechnology Advances, Vol. 33, No. 1, 2015, p. 191-202.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: A review

AU - van Kuijk, S.J.A.

AU - Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

AU - Baars, J.J.P.

AU - Hendriks, W.H.

AU - Cone, J.W.

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass, however, limits the effective utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose. Currently, most often chemical and/or physical treatments are used to degrade lignin. White rot fungi are selective lignin degraders and can be a potential alternative to current methods which involve potentially toxic chemicals and expensive equipment. This review provides an overview of research conducted to date on fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ruminant feeds. White rot fungi colonize lignocellulosic biomass, and during colonization produce enzymes, radicals and other small compounds to breakdown lignin. The mechanisms on how these fungi degrade lignin are not fully understood, but fungal strain, the origin of lignocellulose and culture conditions have a major effect on the process. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii are the most effective fungi to improve the nutritional value of biomass for ruminant nutrition. However, conclusions on the effectiveness of fungal delignification are difficult to draw due to a lack of standardized culture conditions and information on fungal strains used. Methods of analysis between studies are not uniform for both chemical analysis and in vitro degradation measurements. In vivo studies are limited in number and mostly describing digestibility after mushroom production, when the fungus has degraded cellulose to derive energy for fruit body development. Optimization of fungal pretreatment is required to shorten the process of delignification and make it more selective for lignin. In this respect, future research should focus on optimization of culture conditions and gene expression to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved and allow the development of superior fungal strains to degrade lignin in biomass.

AB - In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass, however, limits the effective utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose. Currently, most often chemical and/or physical treatments are used to degrade lignin. White rot fungi are selective lignin degraders and can be a potential alternative to current methods which involve potentially toxic chemicals and expensive equipment. This review provides an overview of research conducted to date on fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ruminant feeds. White rot fungi colonize lignocellulosic biomass, and during colonization produce enzymes, radicals and other small compounds to breakdown lignin. The mechanisms on how these fungi degrade lignin are not fully understood, but fungal strain, the origin of lignocellulose and culture conditions have a major effect on the process. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii are the most effective fungi to improve the nutritional value of biomass for ruminant nutrition. However, conclusions on the effectiveness of fungal delignification are difficult to draw due to a lack of standardized culture conditions and information on fungal strains used. Methods of analysis between studies are not uniform for both chemical analysis and in vitro degradation measurements. In vivo studies are limited in number and mostly describing digestibility after mushroom production, when the fungus has degraded cellulose to derive energy for fruit body development. Optimization of fungal pretreatment is required to shorten the process of delignification and make it more selective for lignin. In this respect, future research should focus on optimization of culture conditions and gene expression to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved and allow the development of superior fungal strains to degrade lignin in biomass.

KW - white-rot fungi

KW - solid-state fermentation

KW - in-vitro digestibility

KW - chromatography mass-spectrometry

KW - spent wheat straw

KW - oil palm fronds

KW - pleurotus-ostreatus

KW - ceriporiopsis-subvermispora

KW - chemical-composition

KW - trametes-versicolor

U2 - 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2014.10.014

DO - 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2014.10.014

M3 - Article

VL - 33

SP - 191

EP - 202

JO - Biotechnology Advances

JF - Biotechnology Advances

SN - 0734-9750

IS - 1

ER -