Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitoring in the Netherlands - Update 2012 and 2013

J.A. van Franeker, S. Kuhn, E. Bravo Rebolledo, A. Meijboom

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional


Fulmars are purely offshore foragers that ingest all sorts of litter from the sea surface and do not regurgitate poorly degradable diet components like plastics. Initial size of ingested debris is usually in the range of millimetres to centimeters, but may be considerably larger for flexible items as for instance threadlike or sheetlike materials. Items must gradually wear down in the muscular stomach to a size small enough for passage to the intestines. During this process, plastics accumulate in the stomach to a level that integrates litter levels encountered in their foraging area for a period of probably up to a few weeks. The Dutch monitoring approach using beached fulmars was developed for international implementation by OSPAR.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationDen Burg
Number of pages56
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Publication series

NameReport / IMARES Wageningen UR


  • fulmarus
  • sea birds
  • wastes
  • water pollution
  • adverse effects
  • microplastics
  • marine areas
  • monitoring


Dive into the research topics of 'Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitoring in the Netherlands - Update 2012 and 2013'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this