Fulmar Litter EcoQO Monitoring in the Netherlands 1979 - 2007 in relation to EU Directive 2000/59/EC on Port Reception Facilities

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional

Abstract

Operational and cargo related wastes from ships are an important source of litter in the marine environment in the southern North Sea and cause serious economical and ecological damage. Marine litter monitoring program using plastic abundance in stomachs of a seabird, the Northern Fulmar, was already operational in The Netherlands and was further developed also for international implementation by OSPAR as one of the 'Ecological Quality Objectives (EcoQOs)' for the North Sea (OSPAR 2008). Fulmars are purely oceanic foragers, ingest all sorts of litter from the sea surface, and do not regurgitate poorly degrading diet components, but slowly wear these down in the stomach. Accumulated hard plastic items in stomachs of beached Fulmars thus integrate marine litter levels encountered over a number of weeks in a particular area.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationTexel
PublisherIMARES
Number of pages39
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Publication series

NameReport / Wageningen IMARES
PublisherIMARES
No.nr: C032/09

Keywords

  • ships
  • wastes
  • water pollution
  • monitoring
  • adverse effects
  • sea birds
  • fulmarus

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