Operational and cargo related wastes from ships are an important source of litter in the marine environment in the southern North Sea and cause serious economical and ecological damage. Marine litter monitoring program using plastic abundance in stomachs of a seabird, the Northern Fulmar, was already operational in The Netherlands and was further developed also for international implementation by OSPAR as one of the 'Ecological Quality Objectives (EcoQOs)' for the North Sea (OSPAR 2008). Fulmars are purely oceanic foragers, ingest all sorts of litter from the sea surface, and do not regurgitate poorly degrading diet components, but slowly wear these down in the stomach. Accumulated hard plastic items in stomachs of beached Fulmars thus integrate marine litter levels encountered over a number of weeks in a particular area.
|Place of Publication||Texel|
|Number of pages||39|
|Publication status||Published - 2009|
|Name||Report / Wageningen IMARES|
- water pollution
- adverse effects
- sea birds