Fruit and vegetable intake and type 2 diabetes: EPIC-InterAct prospective study and meta-analysis

A.J. Cooper, N.G. Forouhi, Z. Ye, B. Buijsse, E.J.M. Feskens

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180 Citations (Scopus)


Fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the epidemiological evidence is inconclusive. The aim of this study is to examine the prospective association of FVI with T2D and conduct an updated meta-analysis. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-InterAct (EPIC-InterAct) prospective case–cohort study nested within eight European countries, a representative sample of 16¿154 participants and 12¿403 incident cases of T2D were identified from 340¿234 individuals with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. For the meta-analysis we identified prospective studies on FVI and T2D risk by systematic searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE until April 2011. In EPIC-InterAct, estimated FVI by dietary questionnaires varied more than twofold between countries. In adjusted analyses the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) comparing the highest with lowest quartile of reported intake was 0.90 (0.80–1.01) for FVI; 0.89 (0.76–1.04) for fruit and 0.94 (0.84–1.05) for vegetables. Among FV subtypes, only root vegetables were inversely associated with diabetes 0.87 (0.77–0.99). In meta-analysis using pooled data from five studies including EPIC-InterAct, comparing the highest with lowest category for FVI was associated with a lower relative risk of diabetes (0.93 (0.87–1.00)). Fruit or vegetables separately were not associated with diabetes. Among FV subtypes, only green leafy vegetable (GLV) intake (relative risk: 0.84 (0.74–0.94)) was inversely associated with diabetes. Subtypes of vegetables, such as root vegetables or GLVs may be beneficial for the prevention of diabetes, while total FVI may exert a weaker overall effect
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1082-1092
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • food frequency questionnaire
  • randomized controlled-trial
  • 10 european countries
  • chronic disease risk
  • dietary patterns
  • life-style
  • magnesium intake
  • beta-carotene
  • cancer
  • consumption


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