Fresh and processed fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in a Dutch population-based follow-up study

L.M. Oude Griep, J.M. Geleijnse, J. de Goede, D. Kromhout, W.M.M. Verschuren

Research output: Contribution to journalAbstractAcademic

Abstract

Introduction: Fruit and vegetable intake lowers CVD and all-cause mortality risk. Whether fresh and processed fruits and vegetables havesimilar health effects remains unclear. Objective: We examined the association of total, fresh and processed fruit and vegetables with CVD and all-cause mortality in a populationbased follow-up study in the Netherlands. Design and methods: 20,148 men and women were examined between 1993–1997, 20–65y and free of CVD. Food intake was assessed by a validated 178-item food frequency questionnaire. Processed fruits and vegetables are juices or cooked. Cause of death was obtained from national registries up to 2007, 678 participants died, 155 of CVD. Cox proportional hazard model was used, adjustments were made for age, gender, energy and alcohol intake, smoking, socioeconomic status, supplement use, anti-hypertensive or cholesterol-lowering drugs, family history of MI and fiber, fish, saturated fatty acids and fruit or vegetables intake. Results: 50 g increase of fruit intake was inversely associated with allcause mortality, HR 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94–0.99). HRs for fresh and processed fruit intake with all-cause mortality were 0.96 (0.93–0.99) and 0.98 (0.94–1.03), respectively. A lower risk of all-cause mortality was observed for 50 g increase of vegetable intake; 0.92 (0.85–1.00). HRs for fresh and processed vegetable intake with all-cause mortality were 1.01 (0.88–1.17) and 0.89 (0.81–0.98), respectively. These trends in association were also observed for CVD mortality, but less strong and borderline significant. Conclusion: Fruit and vegetables are inversely associated with all-cause mortality in healthy Dutch men and women. For vegetables, this relationship was attributable to processed, cooked vegetables
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S22 (P52)-S22
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume63
Issue numberS3
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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