Formation and degradation kinetics of organic acids during heating and drying of concentrated tomato juice

Jun Qiu, Jan Eise Vuist, Remko M. Boom, Maarten A.I. Schutyser*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Tomato products are often thermally processed or concentrated to obtain their desired shelf life and to facilitate transport. However, processing negatively affects the quality of tomato products. This study focused on the influence of processing on the presence of important tomato taste markers, i.e. citric acid, malic acid, ascorbic acid and pyroglutamic acid (PCA). Isothermal heat treatment of tomato juice was experimentally assessed at varying moisture content (0.18–0.95 kg/kg total), temperature (60–100 °C) and time (0–18 h) combinations. Increasing ascorbic acid degradation (up to 70%) and PCA formation (up to 0.032 mmol/g FT) were measured, while citric acid and malic acid were unaffected. A first order reaction kinetics described the degradation and formation of ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.76) and PCA (R2 = 0.98), where the coupled effect of both moisture content and temperature on the reaction rates was modelled with an Arrhenius-type equation. Higher temperature enhanced both reaction rates with factors 4.2 and 5.1 for ascorbic acid and PCA, respectively (from 60 to 100 °C at 95 w/w%), while at lower moisture content the rate of the ascorbic acid degradation decreased with factor 3.5 and the rate of the PCA formation increased with factor 3.5 (both from 95 down to 5 w/w% at 90 °C). Finally, by implementation of the kinetic models in a process model it was estimated that 25% of ascorbic acid degrades during cocurrent drying while after countercurrent drying only 21% degrades. Similarly, during cocurrent drying 0.021 mmol/g FT PCA is formed, which is more than during countercurrent drying (0.008 mmol/g FT). This approach yields interesting insight on the effect of processing on presence of ascorbic acid and PCA and thus offers opportunities for process optimization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)112-121
JournalFood Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie
Volume87
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Fingerprint

Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid
tomato juice
Lycopersicon esculentum
Heating
Ascorbic Acid
organic acids and salts
ascorbic acid
drying
heat
kinetics
Acids
degradation
acids
tomato products
malic acid
water content
Citric Acid
citric acid
Temperature
temperature

Keywords

  • Ascorbic acid
  • Citric acid
  • Kinetic modelling
  • Malic acid
  • Pyroglutamic acid
  • Taste markers

Cite this

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title = "Formation and degradation kinetics of organic acids during heating and drying of concentrated tomato juice",
abstract = "Tomato products are often thermally processed or concentrated to obtain their desired shelf life and to facilitate transport. However, processing negatively affects the quality of tomato products. This study focused on the influence of processing on the presence of important tomato taste markers, i.e. citric acid, malic acid, ascorbic acid and pyroglutamic acid (PCA). Isothermal heat treatment of tomato juice was experimentally assessed at varying moisture content (0.18–0.95 kg/kg total), temperature (60–100 °C) and time (0–18 h) combinations. Increasing ascorbic acid degradation (up to 70{\%}) and PCA formation (up to 0.032 mmol/g FT) were measured, while citric acid and malic acid were unaffected. A first order reaction kinetics described the degradation and formation of ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.76) and PCA (R2 = 0.98), where the coupled effect of both moisture content and temperature on the reaction rates was modelled with an Arrhenius-type equation. Higher temperature enhanced both reaction rates with factors 4.2 and 5.1 for ascorbic acid and PCA, respectively (from 60 to 100 °C at 95 w/w{\%}), while at lower moisture content the rate of the ascorbic acid degradation decreased with factor 3.5 and the rate of the PCA formation increased with factor 3.5 (both from 95 down to 5 w/w{\%} at 90 °C). Finally, by implementation of the kinetic models in a process model it was estimated that 25{\%} of ascorbic acid degrades during cocurrent drying while after countercurrent drying only 21{\%} degrades. Similarly, during cocurrent drying 0.021 mmol/g FT PCA is formed, which is more than during countercurrent drying (0.008 mmol/g FT). This approach yields interesting insight on the effect of processing on presence of ascorbic acid and PCA and thus offers opportunities for process optimization.",
keywords = "Ascorbic acid, Citric acid, Kinetic modelling, Malic acid, Pyroglutamic acid, Taste markers",
author = "Jun Qiu and Vuist, {Jan Eise} and Boom, {Remko M.} and Schutyser, {Maarten A.I.}",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1016/j.lwt.2017.08.081",
language = "English",
volume = "87",
pages = "112--121",
journal = "Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie",
issn = "0023-6438",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Formation and degradation kinetics of organic acids during heating and drying of concentrated tomato juice

AU - Qiu, Jun

AU - Vuist, Jan Eise

AU - Boom, Remko M.

AU - Schutyser, Maarten A.I.

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Tomato products are often thermally processed or concentrated to obtain their desired shelf life and to facilitate transport. However, processing negatively affects the quality of tomato products. This study focused on the influence of processing on the presence of important tomato taste markers, i.e. citric acid, malic acid, ascorbic acid and pyroglutamic acid (PCA). Isothermal heat treatment of tomato juice was experimentally assessed at varying moisture content (0.18–0.95 kg/kg total), temperature (60–100 °C) and time (0–18 h) combinations. Increasing ascorbic acid degradation (up to 70%) and PCA formation (up to 0.032 mmol/g FT) were measured, while citric acid and malic acid were unaffected. A first order reaction kinetics described the degradation and formation of ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.76) and PCA (R2 = 0.98), where the coupled effect of both moisture content and temperature on the reaction rates was modelled with an Arrhenius-type equation. Higher temperature enhanced both reaction rates with factors 4.2 and 5.1 for ascorbic acid and PCA, respectively (from 60 to 100 °C at 95 w/w%), while at lower moisture content the rate of the ascorbic acid degradation decreased with factor 3.5 and the rate of the PCA formation increased with factor 3.5 (both from 95 down to 5 w/w% at 90 °C). Finally, by implementation of the kinetic models in a process model it was estimated that 25% of ascorbic acid degrades during cocurrent drying while after countercurrent drying only 21% degrades. Similarly, during cocurrent drying 0.021 mmol/g FT PCA is formed, which is more than during countercurrent drying (0.008 mmol/g FT). This approach yields interesting insight on the effect of processing on presence of ascorbic acid and PCA and thus offers opportunities for process optimization.

AB - Tomato products are often thermally processed or concentrated to obtain their desired shelf life and to facilitate transport. However, processing negatively affects the quality of tomato products. This study focused on the influence of processing on the presence of important tomato taste markers, i.e. citric acid, malic acid, ascorbic acid and pyroglutamic acid (PCA). Isothermal heat treatment of tomato juice was experimentally assessed at varying moisture content (0.18–0.95 kg/kg total), temperature (60–100 °C) and time (0–18 h) combinations. Increasing ascorbic acid degradation (up to 70%) and PCA formation (up to 0.032 mmol/g FT) were measured, while citric acid and malic acid were unaffected. A first order reaction kinetics described the degradation and formation of ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.76) and PCA (R2 = 0.98), where the coupled effect of both moisture content and temperature on the reaction rates was modelled with an Arrhenius-type equation. Higher temperature enhanced both reaction rates with factors 4.2 and 5.1 for ascorbic acid and PCA, respectively (from 60 to 100 °C at 95 w/w%), while at lower moisture content the rate of the ascorbic acid degradation decreased with factor 3.5 and the rate of the PCA formation increased with factor 3.5 (both from 95 down to 5 w/w% at 90 °C). Finally, by implementation of the kinetic models in a process model it was estimated that 25% of ascorbic acid degrades during cocurrent drying while after countercurrent drying only 21% degrades. Similarly, during cocurrent drying 0.021 mmol/g FT PCA is formed, which is more than during countercurrent drying (0.008 mmol/g FT). This approach yields interesting insight on the effect of processing on presence of ascorbic acid and PCA and thus offers opportunities for process optimization.

KW - Ascorbic acid

KW - Citric acid

KW - Kinetic modelling

KW - Malic acid

KW - Pyroglutamic acid

KW - Taste markers

U2 - 10.1016/j.lwt.2017.08.081

DO - 10.1016/j.lwt.2017.08.081

M3 - Article

VL - 87

SP - 112

EP - 121

JO - Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie

JF - Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie

SN - 0023-6438

ER -