Forage fish (FF) have a unique position within marine foodwebs and the development of sustainable harvest strategies for FF will be a critical step in advancing and implementing the broader, ecosystem-based management of marine systems. In all, 70 scientists from 16 nations gathered for a symposium on 12–14 November 2012 that was designed to address three key questions regarding the effective management of FF and their ecosystems: (i) how do environmental factors and predator–prey interactions drive the productivity and distribution of FF stocks across ecosystems worldwide, (ii) what are the economic and ecological costs and benefits of different FF management strategies, and (iii) do commonalities exist across ecosystems in terms of the effective management of FF exploitation?
- small pelagic fish
Peck, M. A., Neuenfeldt, S., Essington, T. E., & Dickey-Collas, M. (2014). Forage Fish Interactions: a symposium on "Creating the tools for ecosystem-based management of marine resources. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 71(1), 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fst174