In the last two decades, voluntary standards have played an increasing role in reshaping the non-GMO labeling schemes in the EU and the US. This work compares the mandatory and voluntary labeling schemes for food produced from or with GMO in these two markets. After reviewing the EU and US regulatory frameworks, we introduce the incentives for the implementation of private and public voluntary standards. We describe the experiences of voluntary standards adoption by highlighting the development of non-GMO labeled products markets in EU and US. We emphasize the similarities between EU and US frameworks, the convergence between public and private standards, and identify the potential for future development of the non-GMO market. We conclude by describing the policy and economic implications of the development of the non-GMO labeled products markets and consequences of the regulation that will apply to crops derived by new genetic modification techniques.
- Non-GMO regulation
- Private and public standards