First Report of Tomato torrado virus Infecting Tomato in Colombia

    Research output: Contribution to journalComment/Letter to the editorAcademicpeer-review

    Abstract

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants grown in plastic greenhouses near Villa de Leyva, northeast of Bogota, Colombia showed necrotic spots on the leaves in September 2008. Initial symptoms were necrosis beginning at the base of leaflets that were surrounded by yellow areas. These symptoms resembled those described for Tomato torrado virus (ToTV; family Secoviridae, genus Torradovirus), which was first found in Spain (2). Other (tentative) members of the genus Torradovirus, Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV), Tomato chocolate spot virus (ToChSV), and Tomato chocolàte virus (ToChV) (3) induce similar symptoms on tomato plants. One sample, coded T418, was stored in the freezer and brought to our lab in 2011. Serological tests (double-antibody sandwich-ELISA) using polyclonal antibodies (Prime Diagnostics, Wageningen, The Netherlands) on leaf extracts showed the absence of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Potato virus X (PVX), and Potato virus Y (PVY). Leaf extracts were mechanically inoculated onto the indicator plants Physalis floridana, Nicotiana hesperis ‘67A’, and N. occidentalis ‘P1’ (six plants in total) and were kept in a greenhouse at 20°C with 16 h of light. Necrotic symptoms appeared 4 to 5 days postinoculation and resembled those described for ToTV (2). Two dip preparations of systemically infected P. floridana and N. occidentalis leaves were examined by electron microscopy, which revealed the presence of spherical virus particles of approximately 30 nm. To confirm the presence of ToTV, total RNA was extracted from the original leaf material and an inoculated P. floridana and N. occidentalis plant using the Qiagen Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) following manufacturer's instructions. ToTV-specific primer sets ToTV-Dp33F/ToTV-Dp20R (5'-TGCTCAATGTTGGAAACCCC-3'/5'-AGCCCTTCATAGGCTAGCC-3', amplifying a fragment of the RNA1 polyprotein with an expected size of 751 bp) and ToTV-Dp1F/ToTV-Dp2R (5'-ACAAGAGGAGCTTGACGAGG-3'/5'-AAAGGTAGTGTAATGGTCGG-3', amplifying a fragment on the RNA2 movement protein region with an expected size of 568 bp) were used to amplify the indicated regions in a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR using the One-Step Access RT-PCR system (Promega, Madison, WI). Amplicons of the predicted size were obtained in all tested materials. The PCR products were purified with the Qiaquick PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen) and sequenced directly. BLAST analyses of the obtained sequences (GenBank Accession Nos. JQ314230 and JQ314229) confirmed the identity of isolate T418 as ToTV, with 99% identity to isolate PRI-ToTV0301 in both fragments (GenBank Accession Nos. DQ388879 and DQ388880 for RNA1 and RNA 2, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report of ToTV in Colombia, and interestingly, since ToTV has been found only in Europe and Australia (1) so far, this is the first report of ToTV on the American continent
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)592
    Number of pages1
    JournalPlant Disease
    Volume96
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2012

    Fingerprint

    Tomato torrado virus
    Colombia
    Physalis pubescens
    Torradovirus
    signs and symptoms (plants)
    tomatoes
    Secoviridae
    leaf extracts
    Hesperis
    Pepino mosaic virus
    reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction
    RNA
    Potato virus X
    plastic greenhouses
    leaves
    Tomato spotted wilt virus
    Potato virus Y
    Cucumber mosaic virus
    Tobacco mosaic virus
    freezers

    Cite this

    @article{2bdc942f051d432cb960410de37fa35f,
    title = "First Report of Tomato torrado virus Infecting Tomato in Colombia",
    abstract = "Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants grown in plastic greenhouses near Villa de Leyva, northeast of Bogota, Colombia showed necrotic spots on the leaves in September 2008. Initial symptoms were necrosis beginning at the base of leaflets that were surrounded by yellow areas. These symptoms resembled those described for Tomato torrado virus (ToTV; family Secoviridae, genus Torradovirus), which was first found in Spain (2). Other (tentative) members of the genus Torradovirus, Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV), Tomato chocolate spot virus (ToChSV), and Tomato chocol{\`a}te virus (ToChV) (3) induce similar symptoms on tomato plants. One sample, coded T418, was stored in the freezer and brought to our lab in 2011. Serological tests (double-antibody sandwich-ELISA) using polyclonal antibodies (Prime Diagnostics, Wageningen, The Netherlands) on leaf extracts showed the absence of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Potato virus X (PVX), and Potato virus Y (PVY). Leaf extracts were mechanically inoculated onto the indicator plants Physalis floridana, Nicotiana hesperis ‘67A’, and N. occidentalis ‘P1’ (six plants in total) and were kept in a greenhouse at 20°C with 16 h of light. Necrotic symptoms appeared 4 to 5 days postinoculation and resembled those described for ToTV (2). Two dip preparations of systemically infected P. floridana and N. occidentalis leaves were examined by electron microscopy, which revealed the presence of spherical virus particles of approximately 30 nm. To confirm the presence of ToTV, total RNA was extracted from the original leaf material and an inoculated P. floridana and N. occidentalis plant using the Qiagen Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) following manufacturer's instructions. ToTV-specific primer sets ToTV-Dp33F/ToTV-Dp20R (5'-TGCTCAATGTTGGAAACCCC-3'/5'-AGCCCTTCATAGGCTAGCC-3', amplifying a fragment of the RNA1 polyprotein with an expected size of 751 bp) and ToTV-Dp1F/ToTV-Dp2R (5'-ACAAGAGGAGCTTGACGAGG-3'/5'-AAAGGTAGTGTAATGGTCGG-3', amplifying a fragment on the RNA2 movement protein region with an expected size of 568 bp) were used to amplify the indicated regions in a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR using the One-Step Access RT-PCR system (Promega, Madison, WI). Amplicons of the predicted size were obtained in all tested materials. The PCR products were purified with the Qiaquick PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen) and sequenced directly. BLAST analyses of the obtained sequences (GenBank Accession Nos. JQ314230 and JQ314229) confirmed the identity of isolate T418 as ToTV, with 99{\%} identity to isolate PRI-ToTV0301 in both fragments (GenBank Accession Nos. DQ388879 and DQ388880 for RNA1 and RNA 2, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report of ToTV in Colombia, and interestingly, since ToTV has been found only in Europe and Australia (1) so far, this is the first report of ToTV on the American continent",
    author = "M. Verbeek and A.M. Dullemans",
    year = "2012",
    doi = "10.1094/PDIS-11-11-1000",
    language = "English",
    volume = "96",
    pages = "592",
    journal = "Plant Disease",
    issn = "0191-2917",
    publisher = "American Phytopathological Society",
    number = "4",

    }

    First Report of Tomato torrado virus Infecting Tomato in Colombia. / Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.

    In: Plant Disease, Vol. 96, No. 4, 2012, p. 592.

    Research output: Contribution to journalComment/Letter to the editorAcademicpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - First Report of Tomato torrado virus Infecting Tomato in Colombia

    AU - Verbeek, M.

    AU - Dullemans, A.M.

    PY - 2012

    Y1 - 2012

    N2 - Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants grown in plastic greenhouses near Villa de Leyva, northeast of Bogota, Colombia showed necrotic spots on the leaves in September 2008. Initial symptoms were necrosis beginning at the base of leaflets that were surrounded by yellow areas. These symptoms resembled those described for Tomato torrado virus (ToTV; family Secoviridae, genus Torradovirus), which was first found in Spain (2). Other (tentative) members of the genus Torradovirus, Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV), Tomato chocolate spot virus (ToChSV), and Tomato chocolàte virus (ToChV) (3) induce similar symptoms on tomato plants. One sample, coded T418, was stored in the freezer and brought to our lab in 2011. Serological tests (double-antibody sandwich-ELISA) using polyclonal antibodies (Prime Diagnostics, Wageningen, The Netherlands) on leaf extracts showed the absence of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Potato virus X (PVX), and Potato virus Y (PVY). Leaf extracts were mechanically inoculated onto the indicator plants Physalis floridana, Nicotiana hesperis ‘67A’, and N. occidentalis ‘P1’ (six plants in total) and were kept in a greenhouse at 20°C with 16 h of light. Necrotic symptoms appeared 4 to 5 days postinoculation and resembled those described for ToTV (2). Two dip preparations of systemically infected P. floridana and N. occidentalis leaves were examined by electron microscopy, which revealed the presence of spherical virus particles of approximately 30 nm. To confirm the presence of ToTV, total RNA was extracted from the original leaf material and an inoculated P. floridana and N. occidentalis plant using the Qiagen Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) following manufacturer's instructions. ToTV-specific primer sets ToTV-Dp33F/ToTV-Dp20R (5'-TGCTCAATGTTGGAAACCCC-3'/5'-AGCCCTTCATAGGCTAGCC-3', amplifying a fragment of the RNA1 polyprotein with an expected size of 751 bp) and ToTV-Dp1F/ToTV-Dp2R (5'-ACAAGAGGAGCTTGACGAGG-3'/5'-AAAGGTAGTGTAATGGTCGG-3', amplifying a fragment on the RNA2 movement protein region with an expected size of 568 bp) were used to amplify the indicated regions in a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR using the One-Step Access RT-PCR system (Promega, Madison, WI). Amplicons of the predicted size were obtained in all tested materials. The PCR products were purified with the Qiaquick PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen) and sequenced directly. BLAST analyses of the obtained sequences (GenBank Accession Nos. JQ314230 and JQ314229) confirmed the identity of isolate T418 as ToTV, with 99% identity to isolate PRI-ToTV0301 in both fragments (GenBank Accession Nos. DQ388879 and DQ388880 for RNA1 and RNA 2, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report of ToTV in Colombia, and interestingly, since ToTV has been found only in Europe and Australia (1) so far, this is the first report of ToTV on the American continent

    AB - Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants grown in plastic greenhouses near Villa de Leyva, northeast of Bogota, Colombia showed necrotic spots on the leaves in September 2008. Initial symptoms were necrosis beginning at the base of leaflets that were surrounded by yellow areas. These symptoms resembled those described for Tomato torrado virus (ToTV; family Secoviridae, genus Torradovirus), which was first found in Spain (2). Other (tentative) members of the genus Torradovirus, Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV), Tomato chocolate spot virus (ToChSV), and Tomato chocolàte virus (ToChV) (3) induce similar symptoms on tomato plants. One sample, coded T418, was stored in the freezer and brought to our lab in 2011. Serological tests (double-antibody sandwich-ELISA) using polyclonal antibodies (Prime Diagnostics, Wageningen, The Netherlands) on leaf extracts showed the absence of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Potato virus X (PVX), and Potato virus Y (PVY). Leaf extracts were mechanically inoculated onto the indicator plants Physalis floridana, Nicotiana hesperis ‘67A’, and N. occidentalis ‘P1’ (six plants in total) and were kept in a greenhouse at 20°C with 16 h of light. Necrotic symptoms appeared 4 to 5 days postinoculation and resembled those described for ToTV (2). Two dip preparations of systemically infected P. floridana and N. occidentalis leaves were examined by electron microscopy, which revealed the presence of spherical virus particles of approximately 30 nm. To confirm the presence of ToTV, total RNA was extracted from the original leaf material and an inoculated P. floridana and N. occidentalis plant using the Qiagen Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) following manufacturer's instructions. ToTV-specific primer sets ToTV-Dp33F/ToTV-Dp20R (5'-TGCTCAATGTTGGAAACCCC-3'/5'-AGCCCTTCATAGGCTAGCC-3', amplifying a fragment of the RNA1 polyprotein with an expected size of 751 bp) and ToTV-Dp1F/ToTV-Dp2R (5'-ACAAGAGGAGCTTGACGAGG-3'/5'-AAAGGTAGTGTAATGGTCGG-3', amplifying a fragment on the RNA2 movement protein region with an expected size of 568 bp) were used to amplify the indicated regions in a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR using the One-Step Access RT-PCR system (Promega, Madison, WI). Amplicons of the predicted size were obtained in all tested materials. The PCR products were purified with the Qiaquick PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen) and sequenced directly. BLAST analyses of the obtained sequences (GenBank Accession Nos. JQ314230 and JQ314229) confirmed the identity of isolate T418 as ToTV, with 99% identity to isolate PRI-ToTV0301 in both fragments (GenBank Accession Nos. DQ388879 and DQ388880 for RNA1 and RNA 2, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report of ToTV in Colombia, and interestingly, since ToTV has been found only in Europe and Australia (1) so far, this is the first report of ToTV on the American continent

    U2 - 10.1094/PDIS-11-11-1000

    DO - 10.1094/PDIS-11-11-1000

    M3 - Comment/Letter to the editor

    VL - 96

    SP - 592

    JO - Plant Disease

    JF - Plant Disease

    SN - 0191-2917

    IS - 4

    ER -