First evidence of polyembryony in black mangrove Avicennia germinans

Sara P. Cobacho*, Nicole A.L.M. Grol, Thomas A. Dros, Dorine T.B.M. Dekkers, Marjolijn J.A. Christianen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


We provide the first documented case of the black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, producing multiple seedlings from a single propagule, a phenomenon called polyembryony, on several occasions. There is a lack of knowledge about polyembryony in mangroves, as it is an extremely rare phenomenon previously observed in only three other mangrove species. A higher weight of mature propagules may indicate polyembryony, thus enabling early detection. A. germinans may make use of mixed reproductive strategies to ensure the continued survival of the species, or to increase its expansion under favourable environmental conditions. Potential causes and implications of polyembryony in A. germinans are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)321-324
JournalBotanica Marina
Issue number5
Early online date14 Jul 2022
Publication statusPublished - 26 Oct 2022


  • Avicennia
  • mangrove
  • polyembryony
  • propagule
  • seedling


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