Feasibility analysis of wastewater and solid waste systems for application in Indonesia

S.M. Kerstens, I. Leusbrock, G. Zeeman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Indonesia is one of many developing countries with a backlog in achieving targets for the implementation of wastewater and solid waste collection, treatment and recovery systems. Therefore a technical and financial feasibility analysis of these systems was performed using Indonesia as an example. COD, BOD, nitrogen, phosphorus and pathogen removal efficiencies, energy requirements, sludge production, land use and resource recovery potential (phosphorus, energy, duckweed, compost, water) for on-site, community based and off-site wastewater systems were determined. Solid waste systems (conventional, centralized and decentralized resource recovery) were analyzed according to land requirement, compost and energy production and recovery of plastic and paper. In the financial analysis, investments, operational costs & benefits and Total Lifecycle Costs (TLC) of all investigated options were compared. Technical performance and TLC were used to guide system selection for implementation in different residential settings. An analysis was undertaken to determine the effect of price variations of recoverable resources and land prices on TLC. A 10-fold increase in land prices for land intensivewastewater systems resulted in a 5 times higher TLC,whereas a 4-fold increase in the recovered resource selling price resulted in maximum 1.3 times higher TLC. For solid waste, these impacts were reversed — land price and resource selling price variations resulted in a maximumdifference in TLC of 1.8 and 4 respectively. Technical and financial performance analysis can support decision makers in system selection and anticipate the impact of price variations on long-termoperation. The technical analysiswas based on published results of international research and the approach can be applied for other tropical, developing countries. All costs were converted to per capita unit costs and can be updated to assess other countries' estimated costs and benefits. Consequently, the approach can be used to guide wastewater and solid waste system planning in developing countries.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-65
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • sustainable sanitation
  • phosphorus recovery
  • municipal sludge
  • west java
  • nitrogen
  • removal
  • management
  • disposal
  • suitability
  • countries

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