Fate of Lignin and Substituted Xylan during Commercial Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus

M.A. Kabel, E. Jurak, A. Patyshakuliyeva, Ronald P. De Vries, H. Gruppen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paper


Wheat straw based compost is the substrate for commercial growth of Agaricus bisporus
mushrooms, but it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how
much is metabolized during commercial cultivation. In this paper we report yields and remaining
structures of the major compost carbohydrates and lignin. Hereto, a mass balance was conducted in
a tunnel-experiment at industrial scale, and total dry matter, cellulose, hemicellulosic xylan and
lignin were quantified (Jurak et al., 2015a). Remaining (substituted) xylan structures were extracted
and analysed in detail by enzymatic fingerprinting with use of HPAEC and MALDI-TOF MS.
Remaining lignin structures were subjected to analytical pyrolysis GC/MS and typical lignin units
were determined. In addition, to determine why certain fractions remain unused in the compost,
activities of water extracted carbohydrate degrading enzymes were analysed for their ability to
degrade a range of polysaccharides (Jurak et al., 2015b,c). During growth of A. bisporus,
carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was partially degraded. At the same time,
lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was modified, as
observed by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during
growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained (Jurak et
al., 2015a). During mushroom formation, mainly endo-xylanase, endo-glucanase, β-xylosidase and
β-glucosidase activities were determined in the compost extracts. Arabinofuranosidase activity able
to remove arabinosyl residues from doubly substituted xylosyl residues nor α-glucuronidase activity
were detected (Jurak et al., 2015b). The latter correlated with the observed accumulation of xylan
fragments substituted with arabinosyl and glucuronic acid substituents in the compost towards the
end of the cultivation (Jurak et al., 2015c). Hence, it was concluded that compost grown A. bisporus
lacks the ability to degrade and consume highly substituted xylan fragments.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMushroom Science XIX
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the XIXth international congress on the science and cultivation of edible fungi, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 30 May-2 June 2016
EditorsJ.J.P. Baars, A.S.M. Sonnenberg
PublisherInternational Society for Mushroom Science (ISMS)
ISBN (Electronic)9789090297712
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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