The objectives of this study were to explore farmers’ intentions to implement foot and mouth disease (FMD) control in Ethiopia, and to identify perceptions about the disease and its control measures that influence these intentions using the Health Belief Model (HBM) framework. Data were collected using questionnaires from 293 farmers in three different production systems. The influence of perceptions on the intentions to implement controlmeasures were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The effect of socio-demographic and husbandry variables on perceptions that were found to significantly influence the intentions were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. Almost all farmers (99%) intended to implement FMD vaccination free of charge. The majority of farmers in the pastoral (94%) and market oriented (92%) systems also had the intention to implement vaccination with charge but only 42%of the crop-livestockmixed farmers had the intention to do so. Only 2%of pastoral and 18%of crop-livestock mixed farmers had the intention to implement herd isolation and animal movement restriction continuously. These proportions increased to 11%for pastoral and 50%for crop-livestock mixed farmers when the measure is applied only during an outbreak. The majority of farmers in the market oriented system (>80%) had the intention to implement herd isolation and animal movement restriction measure, both continuously and during an outbreak. Among the HBM perception constructs, perceived barrier was found to be the only significant predictor of the intention to implement vaccination. Perceived susceptibility, perceived benefit and perceived barrier were the significant predictors of the intention for herd isolation and animalmovement restriction measure. In turn, the predicting perceived barrier on vaccination control varied significantly with the production systemand the age of farmers. The significant HBM perception predictors on herd isolation and animalmovement restriction control were significantly influenced only by the type of production system. The results of this study indicate that farmers’ intentions to apply FMD controlmeasures are variable among production systems, an insight which is relevant in the development of future control programs. Promotion programs aimed at increasing farmers’ motivation to participate in FMD control by charged vaccination or animal movement restriction should give attention to the perceived barriers influencing the intentions to apply these measures.