Farmers’ access, demand, and satisfaction with innovation support services and their determinants: the case of the cocoa sector in Central Cameroon

Urcil Papito Kenfack Essougong*, Maja Slingerland, Syndhia Mathé, Ken E. Giller, Cees Leeuwis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Purpose: We assessed cocoa farmers’ access to, demand for, and satisfaction with five innovation support services and the factors shaping them. Design/methodology/approach: We used data from 10 focus groups and a survey of 421 farmers in Central Cameroon. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics, and regression models. Findings: Results showed that farmers mostly receive training and advice whereas inputs, credit, and equipment are the most demanded services. Training and advice obtained the highest perceived quality score. Conflicts around distribution and capture by leaders were relatively frequent regarding inputs and equipment. Farmers’ satisfaction with service outcomes increased with the number of services received and any services above training and advice yielded higher outcomes. Location, involvement in certification, seniority, and leadership position in farmers’ organisations were significantly associated with access and demand for at least two services while satisfaction with quality was mostly influenced by prior services received and the extent to which they matched expectations. Practical implications: Farmers’ demands for services are diverse, hence the importance of providing them with either service bundles or options from which they can choose. Additional efforts are needed from service providers to create an enabling environment for the implementation of the disseminated sustainable management practices. Theoretical implications: Farmers’ satisfaction with services can be analysed from different perspectives. Both endogenous and exogenous factors determine access to, demand for, and satisfaction with services. Originality/value: This research is the first to assess the provision of innovation support services in the cocoa sector using an analytical framework that combines demand, access, and satisfaction with five services.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Agricultural Education and Extension
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 30 Aug 2023


  • agricultural extension
  • Agricultural services
  • cocoa
  • enabling environment
  • farmer diversity
  • service quality


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