Faecal carriage, risk factors, acquisition and persistence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in dogs and cats and co-carriage with humans belonging to the same household

G. van den Bunt, A.C. Fluit, M.P. Spaninks, A.J. Timmerman, Y. Geurts, A. Kant, J. Scharringa, D. Mevius, J.A. Wagenaar, M.J.M. Bonten, W. van Pelt, J. Hordijk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are observed in many reservoirs. Pets might play an important role in the dissemination of ESBL-E to humans since they live closely together. OBJECTIVES: To identify prevalence, risk factors, molecular characteristics, persistence and acquisition of ESBL-E in dogs and cats, and co-carriage in human-pet pairs belonging to the same household. METHODS: In a nationwide study, one person per household was randomly invited to complete a questionnaire and to submit a faecal sample. Dog and cat owners were invited to also submit a faecal sample from their pet. Repeated sampling after 1 and 6 months was performed in a subset. ESBL-E were obtained through selective culture and characterized by WGS. Logistic regression analyses and random forest models were performed to identify risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of ESBL-E carriage in these cohorts was 3.8% (95% CI: 2.7%-5.4%) for human participants (n=550), 10.7% (95% CI: 8.3%-13.7%) for dogs (n=555) and 1.4% (95% CI: 0.5%-3.8%) for cats (n=285). Among animals, blaCTX-M-1 was most abundant, followed by blaCTX-M-15. In dogs, persistence of carriage was 57.1% at 1 month and 42.9% at 6 months. Eating raw meat [OR: 8.8, 95% CI: 4.7-16.4; population attributable risk (PAR): 46.5%, 95% CI: 41.3%-49.3%] and dry food (OR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1-0.5; PAR: 56.5%, 95% CI: 33.2%-66.6%) were predictors for ESBL-E carriage in dogs. Human-dog co-carriage was demonstrated in five households. Human-cat co-carriage was not observed. CONCLUSIONS: ESBL-E prevalence was higher in dogs than in humans and lowest in cats. The main risk factor for ESBL-E carriage was eating raw meat. Co-carriage in dogs and household members was uncommon.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)342-350
Number of pages9
JournalThe Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
Volume75
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2020

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