OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to: estimate the prevalence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC ß-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli carriage among broiler farmers, their family members and employees; identify and quantify risk factors for carriage, with an emphasis on contact with live broilers; and compare isolates from humans and broilers within farms with respect to molecular characteristics to gain insight into transmission routes. METHODS: A cross-sectional prevalence study was conducted on 50 randomly selected Dutch broiler farms. Cloacal swabs were taken from 20 randomly chosen broilers. Faecal swabs were returned by 141 individuals living and/or working on 47 farms. ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli were isolated and, for selected isolates, phylogenetic groups, plasmids and sequence types were determined. Questionnaires were used for risk factor analysis. RESULTS: All sampled farms were positive, with 96.4% positive pooled broiler samples. The human prevalence was 19.1%, with 14.3% and 27.1% among individuals having a low and a high degree of contact with live broilers, respectively. Five pairs of human-broiler isolates had identical genes, plasmid families and E. coli sequence types, showing clonal transmission. Furthermore, similar ESBL/AmpC genes on the same plasmid families in different E. coli sequence types in humans and broilers hinted at horizontal gene transfer. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence among people on broiler farms was higher than in previous studies involving patients and the general population. Furthermore, an increased risk of carriage was shown among individuals having a high degree of contact with live broilers. The (relative) contribution of transmission routes that might play a role in the dissemination of ESBL/AmpC-encoding resistance genes to humans on broiler farms should be pursued in future studies.
- livestock-associated mrsa
Huijbers, P. M. C., Graat, E. A. M., Haenen, A. P. J., van Santen, M. G., van Essen-Zandbergen, A., Mevius, D. J., van Duijkeren, E., & van Hoek, A. H. A. M. (2014). Extended-spectrum and AmpC B-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in broilers and peoplelivingand/or working on broiler farms: prevalence, risk factors and molecular characteristics. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 69(10), 2669-2675. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dku178