The vanin gene family encodes secreted and membrane-bound ectoenzymes that convert pantetheine into pantothenic acid and cysteamine. Recent studies in a mouse colitis model indicated that vanin-1 has proinflammatory activity and suggest that pantetheinases are potential therapeutic targets in inflammatory diseases. In a microarray analysis of epidermal gene expression of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis lesions, we identified vanin-3 as the gene showing the highest differential expression of all annotated genes that we studied (19-fold upregulation in psoriasis). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis confirmed the microarray data on vanin-3 and showed similar induction of vanin-1, but not of vanin-2, in psoriatic epidermis. Immunohistochemistry showed that vanin-3 is expressed in the differentiated epidermal layers. Using submerged and organotypic keratinocyte cultures, we found that vanin-1 and vanin-3 are induced at the mRNA and protein level by psoriasis-associated proinflammatory cytokines (Th17/Th1) but not by Th2 cytokines. We hypothesize that increased levels of pantetheinase activity are part of the inflammatory-regenerative epidermal differentiation program, and may contribute to the phenotype observed in psoriasis.