Expression of genes related to energy metabolism and the unfolded protein response in dairy cow mammary cells is affected differently during dietary supplementation with energy from protein and fat

K. Nichols*, J. Dijkstra, H. van Laar, J.J.M. Kim, J.P. Cant, A. Bannink

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Secretory capacity of bovine mammary glands is enabled by a high number of secretory cells and their ability to use a range of metabolites to produce milk components. We isolated RNA from milk fat to measure expression of genes involved in energy-yielding pathways and the unfolded protein response in mammary glands of lactating cows given supplemental energy from protein (PT) and fat (FT) tested in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. We hypothesized that PT and FT would affect expression of genes in the branched-chain AA catabolic pathway and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle based on the different energy types (aminogenic versus lipogenic) used to synthesize milk components. We also hypothesized that the response of genes related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis via the unfolded protein response would reflect the increase in milk production stimulated by PT and FT. Fifty-six multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were fed a basal total mixed ration (34% grass silage, 33% corn silage, 5% grass hay, and 28% concentrate on a dry matter basis) for a 28-d control period. Experimental rations were then fed for 28 d, consisting of (1) low protein, low fat (LP/LF); (2) high protein, low fat (HP/LF); (3) low protein, high fat (LP/HF); or (4) high protein and high fat (HP/HF). To obtain the high-protein (HP) and high-fat (HF) diets, intake of the basal ration was restricted and supplemented isoenergetically (net energy basis) with 2.0 kg/d rumen-protected protein (soybean + rapeseed, 50:50 mixture on dry matter basis) and 0.68 kg/d hydrogenated palm fatty acids on a dry matter basis. RNA from milk fat samples collected on d 27 of each period underwent real-time quantitative PCR. Energy from protein increased expression of BCAT1 (branched-chain amino acid transferase 1) mRNA, but only at the LF level, and tended to decrease expression of mRNA encoding the main subunit of the branched-chain keto-acid dehydrogenase complex. mRNA expression of malic enzyme, a proposed channeling route for AA though the TCA cycle, was decreased by PT, but only at the LF level. Expression of genes associated with de novo fatty acid synthesis was not affected by PT or FT. Energy from fat had no independent effect on genes related to ER homeostasis. At the LF level, PT activated XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1) mRNA. At the HF level, PT increased mRNA expression of the gene encoding GADD34 (growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 34). These findings support our hypothesis that mammary cells use aminogenic and lipogenic precursors differently for milk component production when dietary intervention alters AA and fatty acid supply. They also suggest that mammary cells respond to increased AA supply through mechanisms of ER homeostasis, dependent on the presence of FT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6603-6613
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Volume102
Issue number7
Early online date15 May 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019

Fingerprint

unfolded protein response
Unfolded Protein Response
Dietary Supplements
energy metabolism
Energy Metabolism
breasts
dietary supplements
Breast
dairy cows
Fats
Gene Expression
gene expression
energy
lipids
Proteins
proteins
Milk
cells
milk composition
Messenger RNA

Keywords

  • hydrogenated palm fatty acid
  • mammary cell
  • rumen-protected protein
  • tricarboxylic acid cycle
  • unfolded protein response

Cite this

@article{76661893540c42ff81e09159c50fd2a9,
title = "Expression of genes related to energy metabolism and the unfolded protein response in dairy cow mammary cells is affected differently during dietary supplementation with energy from protein and fat",
abstract = "Secretory capacity of bovine mammary glands is enabled by a high number of secretory cells and their ability to use a range of metabolites to produce milk components. We isolated RNA from milk fat to measure expression of genes involved in energy-yielding pathways and the unfolded protein response in mammary glands of lactating cows given supplemental energy from protein (PT) and fat (FT) tested in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. We hypothesized that PT and FT would affect expression of genes in the branched-chain AA catabolic pathway and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle based on the different energy types (aminogenic versus lipogenic) used to synthesize milk components. We also hypothesized that the response of genes related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis via the unfolded protein response would reflect the increase in milk production stimulated by PT and FT. Fifty-six multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were fed a basal total mixed ration (34{\%} grass silage, 33{\%} corn silage, 5{\%} grass hay, and 28{\%} concentrate on a dry matter basis) for a 28-d control period. Experimental rations were then fed for 28 d, consisting of (1) low protein, low fat (LP/LF); (2) high protein, low fat (HP/LF); (3) low protein, high fat (LP/HF); or (4) high protein and high fat (HP/HF). To obtain the high-protein (HP) and high-fat (HF) diets, intake of the basal ration was restricted and supplemented isoenergetically (net energy basis) with 2.0 kg/d rumen-protected protein (soybean + rapeseed, 50:50 mixture on dry matter basis) and 0.68 kg/d hydrogenated palm fatty acids on a dry matter basis. RNA from milk fat samples collected on d 27 of each period underwent real-time quantitative PCR. Energy from protein increased expression of BCAT1 (branched-chain amino acid transferase 1) mRNA, but only at the LF level, and tended to decrease expression of mRNA encoding the main subunit of the branched-chain keto-acid dehydrogenase complex. mRNA expression of malic enzyme, a proposed channeling route for AA though the TCA cycle, was decreased by PT, but only at the LF level. Expression of genes associated with de novo fatty acid synthesis was not affected by PT or FT. Energy from fat had no independent effect on genes related to ER homeostasis. At the LF level, PT activated XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1) mRNA. At the HF level, PT increased mRNA expression of the gene encoding GADD34 (growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 34). These findings support our hypothesis that mammary cells use aminogenic and lipogenic precursors differently for milk component production when dietary intervention alters AA and fatty acid supply. They also suggest that mammary cells respond to increased AA supply through mechanisms of ER homeostasis, dependent on the presence of FT.",
keywords = "hydrogenated palm fatty acid, mammary cell, rumen-protected protein, tricarboxylic acid cycle, unfolded protein response",
author = "K. Nichols and J. Dijkstra and {van Laar}, H. and J.J.M. Kim and J.P. Cant and A. Bannink",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
doi = "10.3168/jds.2018-15875",
language = "English",
volume = "102",
pages = "6603--6613",
journal = "Journal of Dairy Science",
issn = "0022-0302",
publisher = "American Dairy Science Association",
number = "7",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Expression of genes related to energy metabolism and the unfolded protein response in dairy cow mammary cells is affected differently during dietary supplementation with energy from protein and fat

AU - Nichols, K.

AU - Dijkstra, J.

AU - van Laar, H.

AU - Kim, J.J.M.

AU - Cant, J.P.

AU - Bannink, A.

PY - 2019/7

Y1 - 2019/7

N2 - Secretory capacity of bovine mammary glands is enabled by a high number of secretory cells and their ability to use a range of metabolites to produce milk components. We isolated RNA from milk fat to measure expression of genes involved in energy-yielding pathways and the unfolded protein response in mammary glands of lactating cows given supplemental energy from protein (PT) and fat (FT) tested in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. We hypothesized that PT and FT would affect expression of genes in the branched-chain AA catabolic pathway and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle based on the different energy types (aminogenic versus lipogenic) used to synthesize milk components. We also hypothesized that the response of genes related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis via the unfolded protein response would reflect the increase in milk production stimulated by PT and FT. Fifty-six multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were fed a basal total mixed ration (34% grass silage, 33% corn silage, 5% grass hay, and 28% concentrate on a dry matter basis) for a 28-d control period. Experimental rations were then fed for 28 d, consisting of (1) low protein, low fat (LP/LF); (2) high protein, low fat (HP/LF); (3) low protein, high fat (LP/HF); or (4) high protein and high fat (HP/HF). To obtain the high-protein (HP) and high-fat (HF) diets, intake of the basal ration was restricted and supplemented isoenergetically (net energy basis) with 2.0 kg/d rumen-protected protein (soybean + rapeseed, 50:50 mixture on dry matter basis) and 0.68 kg/d hydrogenated palm fatty acids on a dry matter basis. RNA from milk fat samples collected on d 27 of each period underwent real-time quantitative PCR. Energy from protein increased expression of BCAT1 (branched-chain amino acid transferase 1) mRNA, but only at the LF level, and tended to decrease expression of mRNA encoding the main subunit of the branched-chain keto-acid dehydrogenase complex. mRNA expression of malic enzyme, a proposed channeling route for AA though the TCA cycle, was decreased by PT, but only at the LF level. Expression of genes associated with de novo fatty acid synthesis was not affected by PT or FT. Energy from fat had no independent effect on genes related to ER homeostasis. At the LF level, PT activated XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1) mRNA. At the HF level, PT increased mRNA expression of the gene encoding GADD34 (growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 34). These findings support our hypothesis that mammary cells use aminogenic and lipogenic precursors differently for milk component production when dietary intervention alters AA and fatty acid supply. They also suggest that mammary cells respond to increased AA supply through mechanisms of ER homeostasis, dependent on the presence of FT.

AB - Secretory capacity of bovine mammary glands is enabled by a high number of secretory cells and their ability to use a range of metabolites to produce milk components. We isolated RNA from milk fat to measure expression of genes involved in energy-yielding pathways and the unfolded protein response in mammary glands of lactating cows given supplemental energy from protein (PT) and fat (FT) tested in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. We hypothesized that PT and FT would affect expression of genes in the branched-chain AA catabolic pathway and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle based on the different energy types (aminogenic versus lipogenic) used to synthesize milk components. We also hypothesized that the response of genes related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis via the unfolded protein response would reflect the increase in milk production stimulated by PT and FT. Fifty-six multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were fed a basal total mixed ration (34% grass silage, 33% corn silage, 5% grass hay, and 28% concentrate on a dry matter basis) for a 28-d control period. Experimental rations were then fed for 28 d, consisting of (1) low protein, low fat (LP/LF); (2) high protein, low fat (HP/LF); (3) low protein, high fat (LP/HF); or (4) high protein and high fat (HP/HF). To obtain the high-protein (HP) and high-fat (HF) diets, intake of the basal ration was restricted and supplemented isoenergetically (net energy basis) with 2.0 kg/d rumen-protected protein (soybean + rapeseed, 50:50 mixture on dry matter basis) and 0.68 kg/d hydrogenated palm fatty acids on a dry matter basis. RNA from milk fat samples collected on d 27 of each period underwent real-time quantitative PCR. Energy from protein increased expression of BCAT1 (branched-chain amino acid transferase 1) mRNA, but only at the LF level, and tended to decrease expression of mRNA encoding the main subunit of the branched-chain keto-acid dehydrogenase complex. mRNA expression of malic enzyme, a proposed channeling route for AA though the TCA cycle, was decreased by PT, but only at the LF level. Expression of genes associated with de novo fatty acid synthesis was not affected by PT or FT. Energy from fat had no independent effect on genes related to ER homeostasis. At the LF level, PT activated XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1) mRNA. At the HF level, PT increased mRNA expression of the gene encoding GADD34 (growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 34). These findings support our hypothesis that mammary cells use aminogenic and lipogenic precursors differently for milk component production when dietary intervention alters AA and fatty acid supply. They also suggest that mammary cells respond to increased AA supply through mechanisms of ER homeostasis, dependent on the presence of FT.

KW - hydrogenated palm fatty acid

KW - mammary cell

KW - rumen-protected protein

KW - tricarboxylic acid cycle

KW - unfolded protein response

U2 - 10.3168/jds.2018-15875

DO - 10.3168/jds.2018-15875

M3 - Article

VL - 102

SP - 6603

EP - 6613

JO - Journal of Dairy Science

JF - Journal of Dairy Science

SN - 0022-0302

IS - 7

ER -