This report is commissioned by the International Plant Protection Commission (IPPC) and is the result of a literature review on the effects of plant pests on the IP strategic objectives, as well as interviews and document review on the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) mechanisms of the SPS community. The review shows that there is evidence that the prevention of pests contributes to IPPC’s strategic objectives: enhancing global food security and sustainable agriculture productivity; protecting the environment; and facilitating safe trade, development, and economic growth. However, the context is very important and requires context specific interventions. In particular low-income countries struggle to reduce plant pests and need support in this to help them to also contribute to these overarching objectives. The review also shows that the different SPS organisations have different mechanisms in place for monitoring and evaluation, and these are generally not embedded in a formal monitoring and evaluation system. There is need for more attention to monitoring and evaluation in support of adaptive management of the SPS organisations, that work in often complex environments.