A simultaneous analysis of the virulence of races 1, 2 and 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi to a series of nine carnation cultivars revealed the presence of different interactions between races and cultivars, as well as differences in pathogenesis between race 1 on the one hand and race 2 and 4 on the other. The most common race 2 induced typical symptoms of Fusarium wilt in all susceptible cultivars. The cultivars showed considerable variation in resistance to race 2. Only Novada remained free of external symptoms throughout the experiment. In diseased plants of all cultivars studied, infected vascular tissue was white with dark brown margins, and heavy degradation of the cell walls and xylem parenchyma cells had occurred. All Dutch isolates corresponded with race 2. Race 4 induced wilt symptoms similar to those induced by race 2, and there was a similar variation in resistance to race 2 and 4 in the cultivars. On average, the race 4 isolates were less aggressive than those of race 2. Compared with race 2, there was evidence of some genotype × race interactions: Pallas proved to be considerably more susceptible, and Lena more resistant to race 4 than to race 2. The isolates of race 4 induced a nistopathology similar to that induced by race 2, but with less vascular browning. Race 1 induced atypical but severe wilt symptoms and unusual vascular discoloration in Elsy, Niky and Sam's Pride only. The vascular tissue in these cultivars turned pale brown; in spite of heavy colonization of these tissues virtually no degradation of cell walls was observed. All other cultivars tested proved virtually resistant to race 1, providing further evidence for genotype × race interactions. Within races, limited but statistically significant genotype × isolate interactions were found as well, in particular within race 4. These are tentatively attributed to independent variation of two (or more) resistance components.
- Dianthus caryophyllus
- Fusarium wilt