Evaluation of the Single Dilute (0.43 M) Nitric Acid Extraction to Determine Geochemically Reactive Elements in Soil

Jan E. Groenenberg, Paul F.A.M. Römkens, André van Zomeren, S.M. Rodrigues, Rob N.J. Comans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Recently a dilute nitric acid extraction (0.43 M) was adopted by ISO (ISO-17586:2016) as standard for extraction of geochemically reactive elements in soil and soil like materials. Here we evaluate the performance of this extraction for a wide range of elements by mechanistic geochemical modeling. Model predictions indicate that the extraction recovers the reactive concentration quantitatively (>90%). However, at low ratios of element to reactive surfaces the extraction underestimates reactive Cu, Cr, As, and Mo, that is, elements with a particularly high affinity for organic matter or oxides. The 0.43 M HNO3 together with more dilute and concentrated acid extractions were evaluated by comparing model-predicted and measured dissolved concentrations in CaCl2 soil extracts, using the different extractions as alternative model-input. Mean errors of the predictions based on 0.43 M HNO3 are generally within a factor three, while Mo is underestimated and Co, Ni and Zn in soils with pH > 6 are overestimated, for which possible causes are discussed. Model predictions using 0.43 M HNO3 are superior to those using 0.1 M HNO3 or Aqua Regia that under- and overestimate the reactive element contents, respectively. Low concentrations of oxyanions in our data set and structural underestimation of their reactive concentrations warrant further investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2246-2253
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume51
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Feb 2017

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Nitric Acid
nitric acid
Soils
soil
prediction
evaluation
Biological materials
Oxides
oxide
organic matter
Acids
acid
modeling

Cite this

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title = "Evaluation of the Single Dilute (0.43 M) Nitric Acid Extraction to Determine Geochemically Reactive Elements in Soil",
abstract = "Recently a dilute nitric acid extraction (0.43 M) was adopted by ISO (ISO-17586:2016) as standard for extraction of geochemically reactive elements in soil and soil like materials. Here we evaluate the performance of this extraction for a wide range of elements by mechanistic geochemical modeling. Model predictions indicate that the extraction recovers the reactive concentration quantitatively (>90{\%}). However, at low ratios of element to reactive surfaces the extraction underestimates reactive Cu, Cr, As, and Mo, that is, elements with a particularly high affinity for organic matter or oxides. The 0.43 M HNO3 together with more dilute and concentrated acid extractions were evaluated by comparing model-predicted and measured dissolved concentrations in CaCl2 soil extracts, using the different extractions as alternative model-input. Mean errors of the predictions based on 0.43 M HNO3 are generally within a factor three, while Mo is underestimated and Co, Ni and Zn in soils with pH > 6 are overestimated, for which possible causes are discussed. Model predictions using 0.43 M HNO3 are superior to those using 0.1 M HNO3 or Aqua Regia that under- and overestimate the reactive element contents, respectively. Low concentrations of oxyanions in our data set and structural underestimation of their reactive concentrations warrant further investigation.",
author = "Groenenberg, {Jan E.} and R{\"o}mkens, {Paul F.A.M.} and {van Zomeren}, Andr{\'e} and S.M. Rodrigues and Comans, {Rob N.J.}",
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Evaluation of the Single Dilute (0.43 M) Nitric Acid Extraction to Determine Geochemically Reactive Elements in Soil. / Groenenberg, Jan E.; Römkens, Paul F.A.M.; van Zomeren, André; Rodrigues, S.M.; Comans, Rob N.J.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 51, No. 4, 21.02.2017, p. 2246-2253.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evaluation of the Single Dilute (0.43 M) Nitric Acid Extraction to Determine Geochemically Reactive Elements in Soil

AU - Groenenberg, Jan E.

AU - Römkens, Paul F.A.M.

AU - van Zomeren, André

AU - Rodrigues, S.M.

AU - Comans, Rob N.J.

PY - 2017/2/21

Y1 - 2017/2/21

N2 - Recently a dilute nitric acid extraction (0.43 M) was adopted by ISO (ISO-17586:2016) as standard for extraction of geochemically reactive elements in soil and soil like materials. Here we evaluate the performance of this extraction for a wide range of elements by mechanistic geochemical modeling. Model predictions indicate that the extraction recovers the reactive concentration quantitatively (>90%). However, at low ratios of element to reactive surfaces the extraction underestimates reactive Cu, Cr, As, and Mo, that is, elements with a particularly high affinity for organic matter or oxides. The 0.43 M HNO3 together with more dilute and concentrated acid extractions were evaluated by comparing model-predicted and measured dissolved concentrations in CaCl2 soil extracts, using the different extractions as alternative model-input. Mean errors of the predictions based on 0.43 M HNO3 are generally within a factor three, while Mo is underestimated and Co, Ni and Zn in soils with pH > 6 are overestimated, for which possible causes are discussed. Model predictions using 0.43 M HNO3 are superior to those using 0.1 M HNO3 or Aqua Regia that under- and overestimate the reactive element contents, respectively. Low concentrations of oxyanions in our data set and structural underestimation of their reactive concentrations warrant further investigation.

AB - Recently a dilute nitric acid extraction (0.43 M) was adopted by ISO (ISO-17586:2016) as standard for extraction of geochemically reactive elements in soil and soil like materials. Here we evaluate the performance of this extraction for a wide range of elements by mechanistic geochemical modeling. Model predictions indicate that the extraction recovers the reactive concentration quantitatively (>90%). However, at low ratios of element to reactive surfaces the extraction underestimates reactive Cu, Cr, As, and Mo, that is, elements with a particularly high affinity for organic matter or oxides. The 0.43 M HNO3 together with more dilute and concentrated acid extractions were evaluated by comparing model-predicted and measured dissolved concentrations in CaCl2 soil extracts, using the different extractions as alternative model-input. Mean errors of the predictions based on 0.43 M HNO3 are generally within a factor three, while Mo is underestimated and Co, Ni and Zn in soils with pH > 6 are overestimated, for which possible causes are discussed. Model predictions using 0.43 M HNO3 are superior to those using 0.1 M HNO3 or Aqua Regia that under- and overestimate the reactive element contents, respectively. Low concentrations of oxyanions in our data set and structural underestimation of their reactive concentrations warrant further investigation.

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