Evaluation of Oral Bait Vaccine Efficacy Against Classical Swine Fever in Village Backyard Pig Farms in Bhutan

V.R. Monger*, J.A. Stegeman, K. Dukpa, R.B. Gurung, W.L.A. Loeffen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Control and eradication of classical swine fever (CSF) in countries with a high proportion of backyard holdings is a challenge. Conventional attenuated Chinese C-strain vaccines, though safe and effective, are difficult to use in backyard farms due to various practical reasons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the CSF oral bait vaccine in village backyard pig farms and to assess the farmers' knowledge on CSF and motivation on using oral vaccines. The pigs were fed the bait by the farmers themselves; one bait was given on day 0, followed by second bait on the next day. Seventy-three per cent (140 of 193 pigs) of vaccinated pigs had either a slight (2-fold-3-fold; 60 pigs) or significant (at least 4-fold; 80 pigs) increase of the antibody titre against CSFV. A significant increase of the antibody titres was mainly observed in pigs with no pre-vaccination titre (OR = 12, 95% CI = 4-40). The number of pigs with protective antibody titres (≥40) rose from 47 (24%) to 115 (60%) following vaccination. Only 30% of the farmers claimed to be familiar with CSF, although clinical signs they mentioned were rather unspecific and could relate to many other pig diseases. Most of the farmers claimed to be motivated to use oral vaccines if made available. The oral vaccine could be a substitute for the conventional attenuated CSF vaccines in areas where it is logistically difficult for veterinarians to visit. It may therefore be a useful tool to combat endemic CSF disease in regions where the disease continues to have a serious impact on the backyard farmers who depend on pig farming for their sustenance and livelihoods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e2111-e218
JournalTransboundary and Emerging Diseases
Volume63
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Fingerprint

Bhutan
Classical Swine Fever
hog cholera
baits
villages
mouth
Swine
Vaccines
vaccines
farms
swine
farmers
antibodies
Antibodies
vaccination
Vaccination
Swine Diseases
Farms
swine diseases
Veterinarians

Keywords

  • Bhutan
  • Classical swine fever
  • Exotic pigs
  • Local pigs
  • Oral bait vaccine
  • Village backyard farms
  • Virus neutralization test

Cite this

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title = "Evaluation of Oral Bait Vaccine Efficacy Against Classical Swine Fever in Village Backyard Pig Farms in Bhutan",
abstract = "Control and eradication of classical swine fever (CSF) in countries with a high proportion of backyard holdings is a challenge. Conventional attenuated Chinese C-strain vaccines, though safe and effective, are difficult to use in backyard farms due to various practical reasons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the CSF oral bait vaccine in village backyard pig farms and to assess the farmers' knowledge on CSF and motivation on using oral vaccines. The pigs were fed the bait by the farmers themselves; one bait was given on day 0, followed by second bait on the next day. Seventy-three per cent (140 of 193 pigs) of vaccinated pigs had either a slight (2-fold-3-fold; 60 pigs) or significant (at least 4-fold; 80 pigs) increase of the antibody titre against CSFV. A significant increase of the antibody titres was mainly observed in pigs with no pre-vaccination titre (OR = 12, 95{\%} CI = 4-40). The number of pigs with protective antibody titres (≥40) rose from 47 (24{\%}) to 115 (60{\%}) following vaccination. Only 30{\%} of the farmers claimed to be familiar with CSF, although clinical signs they mentioned were rather unspecific and could relate to many other pig diseases. Most of the farmers claimed to be motivated to use oral vaccines if made available. The oral vaccine could be a substitute for the conventional attenuated CSF vaccines in areas where it is logistically difficult for veterinarians to visit. It may therefore be a useful tool to combat endemic CSF disease in regions where the disease continues to have a serious impact on the backyard farmers who depend on pig farming for their sustenance and livelihoods.",
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Evaluation of Oral Bait Vaccine Efficacy Against Classical Swine Fever in Village Backyard Pig Farms in Bhutan. / Monger, V.R.; Stegeman, J.A.; Dukpa, K.; Gurung, R.B.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

In: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, Vol. 63, No. 6, 2016, p. e2111-e218.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evaluation of Oral Bait Vaccine Efficacy Against Classical Swine Fever in Village Backyard Pig Farms in Bhutan

AU - Monger, V.R.

AU - Stegeman, J.A.

AU - Dukpa, K.

AU - Gurung, R.B.

AU - Loeffen, W.L.A.

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Control and eradication of classical swine fever (CSF) in countries with a high proportion of backyard holdings is a challenge. Conventional attenuated Chinese C-strain vaccines, though safe and effective, are difficult to use in backyard farms due to various practical reasons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the CSF oral bait vaccine in village backyard pig farms and to assess the farmers' knowledge on CSF and motivation on using oral vaccines. The pigs were fed the bait by the farmers themselves; one bait was given on day 0, followed by second bait on the next day. Seventy-three per cent (140 of 193 pigs) of vaccinated pigs had either a slight (2-fold-3-fold; 60 pigs) or significant (at least 4-fold; 80 pigs) increase of the antibody titre against CSFV. A significant increase of the antibody titres was mainly observed in pigs with no pre-vaccination titre (OR = 12, 95% CI = 4-40). The number of pigs with protective antibody titres (≥40) rose from 47 (24%) to 115 (60%) following vaccination. Only 30% of the farmers claimed to be familiar with CSF, although clinical signs they mentioned were rather unspecific and could relate to many other pig diseases. Most of the farmers claimed to be motivated to use oral vaccines if made available. The oral vaccine could be a substitute for the conventional attenuated CSF vaccines in areas where it is logistically difficult for veterinarians to visit. It may therefore be a useful tool to combat endemic CSF disease in regions where the disease continues to have a serious impact on the backyard farmers who depend on pig farming for their sustenance and livelihoods.

AB - Control and eradication of classical swine fever (CSF) in countries with a high proportion of backyard holdings is a challenge. Conventional attenuated Chinese C-strain vaccines, though safe and effective, are difficult to use in backyard farms due to various practical reasons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the CSF oral bait vaccine in village backyard pig farms and to assess the farmers' knowledge on CSF and motivation on using oral vaccines. The pigs were fed the bait by the farmers themselves; one bait was given on day 0, followed by second bait on the next day. Seventy-three per cent (140 of 193 pigs) of vaccinated pigs had either a slight (2-fold-3-fold; 60 pigs) or significant (at least 4-fold; 80 pigs) increase of the antibody titre against CSFV. A significant increase of the antibody titres was mainly observed in pigs with no pre-vaccination titre (OR = 12, 95% CI = 4-40). The number of pigs with protective antibody titres (≥40) rose from 47 (24%) to 115 (60%) following vaccination. Only 30% of the farmers claimed to be familiar with CSF, although clinical signs they mentioned were rather unspecific and could relate to many other pig diseases. Most of the farmers claimed to be motivated to use oral vaccines if made available. The oral vaccine could be a substitute for the conventional attenuated CSF vaccines in areas where it is logistically difficult for veterinarians to visit. It may therefore be a useful tool to combat endemic CSF disease in regions where the disease continues to have a serious impact on the backyard farmers who depend on pig farming for their sustenance and livelihoods.

KW - Bhutan

KW - Classical swine fever

KW - Exotic pigs

KW - Local pigs

KW - Oral bait vaccine

KW - Village backyard farms

KW - Virus neutralization test

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DO - 10.1111/tbed.12333

M3 - Article

VL - 63

SP - e2111-e218

JO - Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

JF - Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

SN - 1865-1674

IS - 6

ER -