The aim of this study was to assess electrical stunning of Atlantic cod and turbot in seawater to develop a protocol for the process of stunning and killing. An induced general epileptiform insult (unconscious) had a duration of 40 ± 27 s (n =14) in cod (2.6 ± 0.5 kg) and 34 ± 18 s (n = 19) in turbot (520 ± 65 g). Seven cod and 3 turbot displayed a physical reaction, and 11 turbot registered an electroencephalogram (EEG) response to pain stimuli administered 30 s post-stun. The heart rate was 32 ± 6 beats/min in cod and 25 ± 7 beats/min in turbot prior to stunning. Post-stunning, the electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed fibrillation and reduced activity post-stun. EEG, ECG recordings, and behavioral observations indicate that when a bipolar square wave current was applied with a frequency of 133 Hz and 43% duty cycle side to side (turbot) and at 170 Hz and 33% duty cycle (cod) head to tail, both species were stunned in seawater at current densities of 3.2 A/dm2 and 2.5 A/dm2, respectively. For turbot, a 5 s exposure to electricity followed by chilling in ice water for 15 min is sufficient to prevent recovery. For cod, a killing method needs to be established.
- catfish clarias-gariepinus
Lambooij, E., Digre, H., Erikson, U., Reimert, H. G. M., Burggraaf, D., & van de Vis, J. W. (2013). Evaluation of Electrical Stunning of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) and Turbot (Psetta maxima) in Seawater. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, 22(4), 371-379. https://doi.org/10.1080/10498850.2011.654047