Evaluation and Selection of Indicators for Land Degradation and Desertification Monitoring: Types of Degradation, Causes, and Implications for Management

O. Kairis, C. Kosmas, C. Karavitis, C.J. Ritsema, L. Salvati, S. Acikalin, M. Alcala, P. Alfama, J. Atlhopheng, J. Barrera, A. Belgacem, A. Sole-Benet, J. Brito, M. Chaker, R. Chanda, C. Coelho, M. Darkoh, I. Diamantis, O. Ermolaeva, V. FassouliW. Fei, J. Feng, F. Fernandez, A. Ferreira, C. Gokceoglu, D. Gonzalez, H. Gungor, R. Hessel, J. Juying, H. Khatteli, N. Khitrov, A. Kounalaki, A. Laouina, P. Lollino, M. Lopes, L. Magole, L. Medina, M. Mendoza, P. Morais, K. Mulale, F. Ocakoglu, M. Ouessar, C. Ovalle, C. Perez, J. Perkins, F. Pliakas, M. Polemio, A. Pozo, C. Prat, Y. Qinke, A. Ramos, J. Ramos, J. Riquelme, V. Romanenkov, L. Rui, F. Santaloia, R. Sebego, M. Sghaier, N. Silva, M. Sizemskaya, J. Soares, H. Sonmez, H. Taamallah, L. Tezcan, D. Torri, F. Ungaro, S. Valente, J. de Vente, E. Zagal, A. Zeiliguer, W. Zhonging, A. Ziogas

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61 Citations (Scopus)


Indicator-based approaches are often used to monitor land degradation and desertification from the global to the very local scale. However, there is still little agreement on which indicators may best reflect both status and trends of these phenomena. In this study, various processes of land degradation and desertification have been analyzed in 17 study sites around the world using a wide set of biophysical and socioeconomic indicators. The database described earlier in this issue by Kosmas and others (Environ Manage, 2013) for defining desertification risk was further analyzed to define the most important indicators related to the following degradation processes: water erosion in various land uses, tillage erosion, soil salinization, water stress, forest fires, and overgrazing. A correlation analysis was applied to the selected indicators in order to identify the most important variables contributing to each land degradation process. The analysis indicates that the most important indicators are: (i) rain seasonality affecting water erosion, water stress, and forest fires, (ii) slope gradient affecting water erosion, tillage erosion and water stress, and (iii) water scarcity soil salinization, water stress, and forest fires. Implementation of existing regulations or policies concerned with resources development and environmental sustainability was identified as the most important indicator of land protection.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)971-982
JournalEnvironmental Management
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • region ne spain
  • tillage erosion
  • soil displacement
  • translocation
  • vulnerability
  • sensitivity
  • performance
  • vegetation
  • systems
  • impact


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