Parking policy measures are widely used to manage cars in nature areas. Only with data from long-term monitoring projects is it possible to separate ¿normal¿ fluctuation in the number of cars from fluctuation caused by trends or caused by the effects of these measures. An evaluation of measures implemented in two dune areas in the Netherlands shows that parking policy measures affect the number of cars. While the number and location of parking places can be used to manage the number of cars and their spatial distribution in the area, the implementation of parking charges only brings about a temporary effect.
Beunen, R., Jaarsma, C. F., & Regnerus, H. D. (2006). Evaluating the effects of parking policy measures in nature areas. Journal of Transport Geography, 14(5), 376-383. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2005.10.002