In several reported cases of the entry of invasive mosquito species (IMSs) into Europe, the introduction was associated with a specific pathway of introduction or dispersal. The identification of potential pathways for the introduction of IMSs and evaluations of the importance of the different pathways are key to designing proper surveillance strategies to promptly detect and control introductions in non-infested areas. The main goals of the present study were to identify other, previously undocumented, pathways of introduction into Europe, and to identify mosquito experts' perceptions regarding control measures against IMS introductions via different documented pathways. At the European Mosquito Control Association (EMCA) conference in Montenegro in March 2017, a questionnaire was distributed among meeting participants to collect expert data. Results showed that ground transportation (by cars, trucks, etc.), passive natural dispersal and the shipping of used tyres are perceived as the most likely pathways. Introduction via aircraft did not appear to be well known and was not perceived as probable. This study shows that there were no pathways unknown to European experts that could lead to cryptic introductions into the experts' countries. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that the perceived efficacy of surveillance and control is key to overcoming the constraints experienced and to supporting the implementation of actions against introductions.
- action tendencies
- European Mosquito Control Association (EMCA)
- mosquito control
- mosquito surveillance