Evaluating competence-based vocational education in Indonesia

Zainun Misbah*, Judith Gulikers, Surya Dharma, Martin Mulder

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


This paper investigates the realisation of competence-based education (CBE) in vocational education in Indonesia. It examines the extent to which CBE design principles of the Comprehensive Competence-Based Education Framework developed in a Western context exist in Indonesian policy documents and school practices. This study reviews educational policy documents and collects cross-sectional survey data from 41 school principals, 453 teachers, and 2219 students from 41 agricultural vocational schools in five provinces of Java, Indonesia. Results showed that the ten CCBE principles listed in the framework exist to large extent in Indonesian policy documents. School principals, teachers, and students noticed the realisation of CCBE principles in the study programme to differing degrees, except for the principle of flexibility that was largely absent. The level of CBE implementation varied, from the level of starting competence-based to that of largely competence-based education. The findings contribute to the discussion of CCBE design principles and lesson learned of CBE implementation in a non-western perspective.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)488-515
JournalJournal of Vocational Education and Training
Issue number4
Early online date2 Jul 2019
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • agricultural schools
  • Competence-based education
  • Indonesia
  • vocational education


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