European Nature Conservation and Restoration Policy: Problems and Perspectives

F.W.J. Keulartz

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    50 Citations (Scopus)


    The implementation of Natura 2000 has met with considerable resistance from farmers, fishermen, foresters, and other local residents in most European Union Member States. In response to the rural protest, the majority of governments have gradually abandoned their centralist, top-down approach and increasingly switched over to methods of participatory and interactive policy-making. However, this "democratisation" of European nature conservation policy is not without its problems and pitfalls. The inclusion of an ever-growing group of stakeholders with different and often diverging interests, ideas, views, and values will more often than not lead to conflicts over the future of nature and the landscape. The causes and consequences of these conflicts need to be examined to improve the policy process
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)446-450
    JournalRestoration Ecology
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 2009


    • Conflicts
    • Implementation problems
    • Natura 2000
    • Participation
    • Trust-building


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