Etiology of soybean-induced enteritis in fish

P.A. Urán Carmona

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WUAcademic

Abstract

The inclusion of soybean meal (SBM), especially in the diet of Atlantic salmon, induces an inflammatory response of the distal intestinal mucosa, known as SBM-induced enteritis. A semi-quantitative scoring system was developed to assess the extent of the morphological changes observed in this study. The influence of SBM feeding has been investigated taking into account several dietary and non-dietary factors possibly involved in the induction of the disorder. It has been found that the severity of enteritis and its kinetics are dose-dependent. Electron microscopy studies indicated a block of the endocytosis process and a strong decrease of the microvilli length. Comparative studies were carried out in an omnivorous species and for the first time ever reported, the results suggested that the symptoms of enteritis also occur in common carp. Contrary to the observations in studies with Atlantic salmon, the common carp started to recover from week four onwards. Several cytokines were presumed to influence this process and they were correlated to the modulation of the inflammatory process triggered by the SBM-containing diet. The influence of different factors was measured according to the degree of enteritis developed. Low temperature (8 °C vs. 12 °C) seems to delay the onset of the symptoms. On the other hand, it was suggested that SBM-induced enteritis was not strongly influenced by either salinity or age. The extent of enteritis in Atlantic salmon depends on the origin and/or the processing of the soybeans. The morphological changes observed were induced when soyasaponins were fed to Atlantic salmon alone or in combination with other soybean components suggesting their possible role on the induction of enteritis. The actual causative components and its mechanisms of action need further research. It is concluded that the etiology and further development of SBM-induced enteritis is related to dietary factors rather than non-dietary factors. SBM inclusion levels and the commercial source used for the diet formulation have a great impact on the severity of the disorder, mainly affecting the endocytosis process. This thesis evidenced that the endocytosis block is directly related to the disappearance of the supranuclear vacuoles, which can be considered as the most striking feature in the onset of enteritis.
LanguageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Wageningen University
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Verreth, Johan, Promotor
  • Schrama, Johan, Co-promotor
  • Rombout, Jan, Co-promotor
Award date22 Apr 2008
Place of Publication[S.l.]
Publisher
Print ISBNs9789085049098
Publication statusPublished - 2008

Fingerprint

enteritis
etiology
soybeans
soybean meal
fish
Salmo salar
endocytosis
Cyprinus carpio
diet
signs and symptoms (animals and humans)
intestinal mucosa
microvilli
vacuoles
mechanism of action
electron microscopy
cytokines
inflammation
salinity
kinetics
dosage

Keywords

  • Atlantic salmon
  • carp
  • soyabeans
  • fish feeding
  • enteritis
  • aetiology
  • animal pathology
  • fish culture
  • aquaculture

Cite this

Urán Carmona, P. A. (2008). Etiology of soybean-induced enteritis in fish. [S.l.]: S.n.
Urán Carmona, P.A.. / Etiology of soybean-induced enteritis in fish. [S.l.] : S.n., 2008. 175 p.
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title = "Etiology of soybean-induced enteritis in fish",
abstract = "The inclusion of soybean meal (SBM), especially in the diet of Atlantic salmon, induces an inflammatory response of the distal intestinal mucosa, known as SBM-induced enteritis. A semi-quantitative scoring system was developed to assess the extent of the morphological changes observed in this study. The influence of SBM feeding has been investigated taking into account several dietary and non-dietary factors possibly involved in the induction of the disorder. It has been found that the severity of enteritis and its kinetics are dose-dependent. Electron microscopy studies indicated a block of the endocytosis process and a strong decrease of the microvilli length. Comparative studies were carried out in an omnivorous species and for the first time ever reported, the results suggested that the symptoms of enteritis also occur in common carp. Contrary to the observations in studies with Atlantic salmon, the common carp started to recover from week four onwards. Several cytokines were presumed to influence this process and they were correlated to the modulation of the inflammatory process triggered by the SBM-containing diet. The influence of different factors was measured according to the degree of enteritis developed. Low temperature (8 °C vs. 12 °C) seems to delay the onset of the symptoms. On the other hand, it was suggested that SBM-induced enteritis was not strongly influenced by either salinity or age. The extent of enteritis in Atlantic salmon depends on the origin and/or the processing of the soybeans. The morphological changes observed were induced when soyasaponins were fed to Atlantic salmon alone or in combination with other soybean components suggesting their possible role on the induction of enteritis. The actual causative components and its mechanisms of action need further research. It is concluded that the etiology and further development of SBM-induced enteritis is related to dietary factors rather than non-dietary factors. SBM inclusion levels and the commercial source used for the diet formulation have a great impact on the severity of the disorder, mainly affecting the endocytosis process. This thesis evidenced that the endocytosis block is directly related to the disappearance of the supranuclear vacuoles, which can be considered as the most striking feature in the onset of enteritis.",
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Urán Carmona, PA 2008, 'Etiology of soybean-induced enteritis in fish', Doctor of Philosophy, Wageningen University, [S.l.].

Etiology of soybean-induced enteritis in fish. / Urán Carmona, P.A.

[S.l.] : S.n., 2008. 175 p.

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WUAcademic

TY - THES

T1 - Etiology of soybean-induced enteritis in fish

AU - Urán Carmona, P.A.

N1 - WU thesis, no. 4424

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - The inclusion of soybean meal (SBM), especially in the diet of Atlantic salmon, induces an inflammatory response of the distal intestinal mucosa, known as SBM-induced enteritis. A semi-quantitative scoring system was developed to assess the extent of the morphological changes observed in this study. The influence of SBM feeding has been investigated taking into account several dietary and non-dietary factors possibly involved in the induction of the disorder. It has been found that the severity of enteritis and its kinetics are dose-dependent. Electron microscopy studies indicated a block of the endocytosis process and a strong decrease of the microvilli length. Comparative studies were carried out in an omnivorous species and for the first time ever reported, the results suggested that the symptoms of enteritis also occur in common carp. Contrary to the observations in studies with Atlantic salmon, the common carp started to recover from week four onwards. Several cytokines were presumed to influence this process and they were correlated to the modulation of the inflammatory process triggered by the SBM-containing diet. The influence of different factors was measured according to the degree of enteritis developed. Low temperature (8 °C vs. 12 °C) seems to delay the onset of the symptoms. On the other hand, it was suggested that SBM-induced enteritis was not strongly influenced by either salinity or age. The extent of enteritis in Atlantic salmon depends on the origin and/or the processing of the soybeans. The morphological changes observed were induced when soyasaponins were fed to Atlantic salmon alone or in combination with other soybean components suggesting their possible role on the induction of enteritis. The actual causative components and its mechanisms of action need further research. It is concluded that the etiology and further development of SBM-induced enteritis is related to dietary factors rather than non-dietary factors. SBM inclusion levels and the commercial source used for the diet formulation have a great impact on the severity of the disorder, mainly affecting the endocytosis process. This thesis evidenced that the endocytosis block is directly related to the disappearance of the supranuclear vacuoles, which can be considered as the most striking feature in the onset of enteritis.

AB - The inclusion of soybean meal (SBM), especially in the diet of Atlantic salmon, induces an inflammatory response of the distal intestinal mucosa, known as SBM-induced enteritis. A semi-quantitative scoring system was developed to assess the extent of the morphological changes observed in this study. The influence of SBM feeding has been investigated taking into account several dietary and non-dietary factors possibly involved in the induction of the disorder. It has been found that the severity of enteritis and its kinetics are dose-dependent. Electron microscopy studies indicated a block of the endocytosis process and a strong decrease of the microvilli length. Comparative studies were carried out in an omnivorous species and for the first time ever reported, the results suggested that the symptoms of enteritis also occur in common carp. Contrary to the observations in studies with Atlantic salmon, the common carp started to recover from week four onwards. Several cytokines were presumed to influence this process and they were correlated to the modulation of the inflammatory process triggered by the SBM-containing diet. The influence of different factors was measured according to the degree of enteritis developed. Low temperature (8 °C vs. 12 °C) seems to delay the onset of the symptoms. On the other hand, it was suggested that SBM-induced enteritis was not strongly influenced by either salinity or age. The extent of enteritis in Atlantic salmon depends on the origin and/or the processing of the soybeans. The morphological changes observed were induced when soyasaponins were fed to Atlantic salmon alone or in combination with other soybean components suggesting their possible role on the induction of enteritis. The actual causative components and its mechanisms of action need further research. It is concluded that the etiology and further development of SBM-induced enteritis is related to dietary factors rather than non-dietary factors. SBM inclusion levels and the commercial source used for the diet formulation have a great impact on the severity of the disorder, mainly affecting the endocytosis process. This thesis evidenced that the endocytosis block is directly related to the disappearance of the supranuclear vacuoles, which can be considered as the most striking feature in the onset of enteritis.

KW - Europese zalm

KW - karper

KW - sojabonen

KW - visvoeding

KW - enteritis

KW - etiologie

KW - dierpathologie

KW - visteelt

KW - aquacultuur

KW - Atlantic salmon

KW - carp

KW - soyabeans

KW - fish feeding

KW - enteritis

KW - aetiology

KW - animal pathology

KW - fish culture

KW - aquaculture

M3 - internal PhD, WU

SN - 9789085049098

PB - S.n.

CY - [S.l.]

ER -

Urán Carmona PA. Etiology of soybean-induced enteritis in fish. [S.l.]: S.n., 2008. 175 p.