|Title of host publication||Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences|
|Editors||S.R. Quah, W.C. Cockerham|
|Publication status||Published - 2017|
Collective immunization can be highly effective in protecting societies against infectious diseases, but policy decisions about both the character and the content of immunization policies require ethical justification. This article offers an overview of ethical aspects that should be taken into account, which include assessment of relevant disease burden, effectiveness and safety of vaccinations, justice and cost-effectiveness, and the question whether (childhood) immunization should be compulsory.