## Abstract

The effect of terrain heterogeneities in one-point

measurements is a continuous subject of discussion. Here

we focus on the order of magnitude of the advection term

in the equation of the evolution of temperature as generated

by documented terrain heterogeneities and we estimate its

importance as a term in the surface energy budget (SEB),

for which the turbulent fluxes are computed using the eddycorrelation

method. The heterogeneities are estimated from

satellite and model fields for scales near 1 km or broader,

while the smaller scales are estimated through direct measurements

with remotely piloted aircraft and thermal cameras

and also by high-resolution modelling. The variability

of the surface temperature fields is not found to decrease

clearly with increasing resolution, and consequently the advection

term becomes more important as the scales become

finer. The advection term provides non-significant values to

the SEB at scales larger than a few kilometres. In contrast,

surface heterogeneities at the metre scale yield large values

of the advection, which are probably only significant in the

first centimetres above the ground. The motions that seem

to contribute significantly to the advection term in the SEB

equation in our case are roughly those around the hectometre

scales.

measurements is a continuous subject of discussion. Here

we focus on the order of magnitude of the advection term

in the equation of the evolution of temperature as generated

by documented terrain heterogeneities and we estimate its

importance as a term in the surface energy budget (SEB),

for which the turbulent fluxes are computed using the eddycorrelation

method. The heterogeneities are estimated from

satellite and model fields for scales near 1 km or broader,

while the smaller scales are estimated through direct measurements

with remotely piloted aircraft and thermal cameras

and also by high-resolution modelling. The variability

of the surface temperature fields is not found to decrease

clearly with increasing resolution, and consequently the advection

term becomes more important as the scales become

finer. The advection term provides non-significant values to

the SEB at scales larger than a few kilometres. In contrast,

surface heterogeneities at the metre scale yield large values

of the advection, which are probably only significant in the

first centimetres above the ground. The motions that seem

to contribute significantly to the advection term in the SEB

equation in our case are roughly those around the hectometre

scales.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 9489-9504 |

Journal | Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics |

Volume | 16 |

Issue number | 14 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2016 |