Three new potato genotypes, designated AR 04-4107, AR 04-4096 and AR 04-4098, with resistance towards Meloidogyne chitwoodi, and the susceptible cv. Désirée were grown at a range of population densities of M. chitwoodi in a climate-controlled glasshouse in order to establish the presence and degree of partial resistance. Tuber parts of about 12 g were planted at densities (Pi) of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 and 256 second-stage juveniles (J2) (g dry soil)-1. The plants were allowed to grow for a period of 105 days. Tomato cv. Moneymaker was included and inoculated at Pi = 2 J2 (g soil)-1 to verify the quality of the inoculum by measuring the multiplication rate. Plant height was measured weekly over 11 weeks. At harvest, fresh shoot, root and tuber weights, and number of tubers were measured to express yield. Final population densities (Pf) were calculated as the total number of nematodes found in soil and roots. Tubers were scored for visible symptoms and a root-knot index was calculated. The relation between pre-plant population densities (Pi) and nematode densities at harvest (Pf) was fitted using R. The multiplication rate a of M. chitwoodi on AR 04-4107, AR 04-4096, AR 04-4098 and cv. Désirée was 0.55, 0.27, 0.91 and 32, respectively. Partial resistance rsa of AR 04-4107, AR 04-4096 and AR 04-4098 was 1.7%, 0.8% and 2.8%, respectively. Partial resistance expressed as rsM was 0.2%, 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively. It can be concluded that AR 04-4107, AR 04-4096 and AR 04-4098 are strongly partially resistant to M. chitwoodi. Also, the population dynamics curves run almost parallel between both the tested genotypes and the reference cultivar, indicating that a simple and cheap partial resistance test is feasible. When tuber yields were fitted to the Seinhorst model for yield reduction, cv. Désirée showed a minimum yield (m) of 0.86, while all three resistant genotypes suffered no yields losses at all (m = 1), which indicates that the observed resistance was associated with tolerance. As a result of the remarkably high partial resistance, quality damage was low compared with cv. Désirée. The root-knot index, which takes into account internal quality damage of the potato tuber, was below 10 for all genotypes with partial resistance, the lower damage threshold used for industrial processing of consumption potatoes. Visible symptoms on the tuber skin were absent up to densities of 32 J2 (g soil)-1 for genotypes AR 04-4098 and AR 04-4096 and 2 J2 (g soil)-1 for AR 04-4107, and significantly reduced at higher densities when compared with the susceptible cv. Désirée. However, when tuber peels were investigated, egg masses were detected in tubers at almost all initial population densities.
- root-knot nematode
- plant parasitic nematodes