Estimation of instantaneous moment arms of lower-leg muscles

C.W. Spoor*, J.L. van Leeuwen, C.G.M. Meskers, A.F. Titulaer, A. Huson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

160 Citations (Scopus)


Muscle moment arms at the human knee and ankle were estimated from muscle length changes measured as a function of joint flexion angle in cadaver specimens. Nearly all lower-leg muscles were studied: extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, gastrocnemius lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, peroneus brevis, peroneus longus, peroneus tertius, plantaris, soleus, tibialis anterior, and tibialis posterior. Noise in measured muscle length was filtered by means of quintic splines. Moment arms of the mm. gastrocnemii appear to be much more dependent on joint flexion angles than was generally assumed by other investigators. Some consequences for earlier analyses are mentioned.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1247-1259
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1990
Externally publishedYes


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