Epigenetic inheritance in apomictic dandelions

stress-induced and heritable modifications in DNA methylation and small RNA

V. Preite

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WU

Abstract

Epigenetic variation, such as changes in DNA methylations, regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) and chromatin modifications can be induced by environmental stress. There is increasing information that such induced epigenetic modifications can be transmitted to offspring, potentially mediating adaptive transgenerational responses to environmental changes. However, it is unclear if this phenomenon is common and relevant for adaptation under natural conditions. My thesis study aimed to examine epigenetic inheritance in common and widespread apomictic dandelions (Taraxacum officinale Wig.). Due to their asexual reproduction mode by producing clonal seeds offspring from seeds are genetically uniform and thus suitable to investigate epigenetic effects that are not confounded with genetic variation.

I exposed apomictic dandelion lineages to drought and salicylic acid (SA) stress, which induces plant defense responses following pathogen attack, and found effects on patterns of DNA methylation up to two stress-free offspring generations after exposure. However, a heritable stress signal was not present in all tests and was stress- and lineage-dependent. Drought stress triggered a weak and lineage-dependent signal that was lost again in the second offspring generation. SA treatment revealed a stress-related increased rate of DNA methylation changes in the two offspring generations, but no stress signal was found in the stressed generation itself. I also observed changes in small RNA production due the drought and SA stress experienced two generations ago. These transgenerational sRNA effects showed association with gene functions related to grandparental drought and SA stress, which suggests functional relevance of the transgenerational effects.

I used a reciprocal transplantation field experiment to investigate whether exposing dandelions to natural field stresses also triggers DNA methylation changes. The experiment revealed evidence of adaptive divergence between the populations, suggesting that non-native habitats are experienced as more stressful. However, under these field conditions no induction-based DNA methylation changes were found that persisted into offspring.

By using AFLP and MS-AFLP screening of natural apomictic dandelion populations across a north-south transect in Europe I examined if natural, heritable DNA methylation variation reflects underlying genetic variation, or if it shows patterns that are not predictable from underlying genetics. I found that a large part of heritable DNA methylation differentiation along the north-south transect was correlated with genetic differentiation. However, a fraction of differentiation in heritable DNA methylation was independent from genetic variation. This suggests a potential of epigenetics to play an evolutionary role independently, at least to some extent, from underlying genetics. Overall, I found indications of epigenetic inheritance in apomictic dandelions. Whether epigenetic variation would result in adaptive phenotypic variation in nature and whether it would persist long enough to play a relevant role in adaptation remains unclear and requires further study.

Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Wageningen University
Supervisors/Advisors
  • van der Putten, Wim, Promotor
  • Verhoeven, K.J.F., Co-promotor
Award date7 Sep 2016
Place of PublicationWageningen
Publisher
Print ISBNs9789462578715
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Fingerprint

Taraxacum
DNA methylation
epigenetics
inheritance (genetics)
RNA
salicylic acid
genetic variation
drought
amplified fragment length polymorphism
Taraxacum officinale
adaptive radiation
asexual reproduction
seeds
phenotypic variation
chromatin
water stress
screening
pathogens

Keywords

  • taraxacum officinale
  • epigenetics
  • inheritance
  • apomixis
  • dna methylation
  • rna
  • heritability
  • stress

Cite this

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title = "Epigenetic inheritance in apomictic dandelions: stress-induced and heritable modifications in DNA methylation and small RNA",
abstract = "Epigenetic variation, such as changes in DNA methylations, regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) and chromatin modifications can be induced by environmental stress. There is increasing information that such induced epigenetic modifications can be transmitted to offspring, potentially mediating adaptive transgenerational responses to environmental changes. However, it is unclear if this phenomenon is common and relevant for adaptation under natural conditions. My thesis study aimed to examine epigenetic inheritance in common and widespread apomictic dandelions (Taraxacum officinale Wig.). Due to their asexual reproduction mode by producing clonal seeds offspring from seeds are genetically uniform and thus suitable to investigate epigenetic effects that are not confounded with genetic variation. I exposed apomictic dandelion lineages to drought and salicylic acid (SA) stress, which induces plant defense responses following pathogen attack, and found effects on patterns of DNA methylation up to two stress-free offspring generations after exposure. However, a heritable stress signal was not present in all tests and was stress- and lineage-dependent. Drought stress triggered a weak and lineage-dependent signal that was lost again in the second offspring generation. SA treatment revealed a stress-related increased rate of DNA methylation changes in the two offspring generations, but no stress signal was found in the stressed generation itself. I also observed changes in small RNA production due the drought and SA stress experienced two generations ago. These transgenerational sRNA effects showed association with gene functions related to grandparental drought and SA stress, which suggests functional relevance of the transgenerational effects. I used a reciprocal transplantation field experiment to investigate whether exposing dandelions to natural field stresses also triggers DNA methylation changes. The experiment revealed evidence of adaptive divergence between the populations, suggesting that non-native habitats are experienced as more stressful. However, under these field conditions no induction-based DNA methylation changes were found that persisted into offspring. By using AFLP and MS-AFLP screening of natural apomictic dandelion populations across a north-south transect in Europe I examined if natural, heritable DNA methylation variation reflects underlying genetic variation, or if it shows patterns that are not predictable from underlying genetics. I found that a large part of heritable DNA methylation differentiation along the north-south transect was correlated with genetic differentiation. However, a fraction of differentiation in heritable DNA methylation was independent from genetic variation. This suggests a potential of epigenetics to play an evolutionary role independently, at least to some extent, from underlying genetics. Overall, I found indications of epigenetic inheritance in apomictic dandelions. Whether epigenetic variation would result in adaptive phenotypic variation in nature and whether it would persist long enough to play a relevant role in adaptation remains unclear and requires further study.",
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year = "2016",
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language = "English",
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Epigenetic inheritance in apomictic dandelions : stress-induced and heritable modifications in DNA methylation and small RNA. / Preite, V.

Wageningen : Wageningen University, 2016. 152 p.

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WU

TY - THES

T1 - Epigenetic inheritance in apomictic dandelions

T2 - stress-induced and heritable modifications in DNA methylation and small RNA

AU - Preite, V.

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PY - 2016

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N2 - Epigenetic variation, such as changes in DNA methylations, regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) and chromatin modifications can be induced by environmental stress. There is increasing information that such induced epigenetic modifications can be transmitted to offspring, potentially mediating adaptive transgenerational responses to environmental changes. However, it is unclear if this phenomenon is common and relevant for adaptation under natural conditions. My thesis study aimed to examine epigenetic inheritance in common and widespread apomictic dandelions (Taraxacum officinale Wig.). Due to their asexual reproduction mode by producing clonal seeds offspring from seeds are genetically uniform and thus suitable to investigate epigenetic effects that are not confounded with genetic variation. I exposed apomictic dandelion lineages to drought and salicylic acid (SA) stress, which induces plant defense responses following pathogen attack, and found effects on patterns of DNA methylation up to two stress-free offspring generations after exposure. However, a heritable stress signal was not present in all tests and was stress- and lineage-dependent. Drought stress triggered a weak and lineage-dependent signal that was lost again in the second offspring generation. SA treatment revealed a stress-related increased rate of DNA methylation changes in the two offspring generations, but no stress signal was found in the stressed generation itself. I also observed changes in small RNA production due the drought and SA stress experienced two generations ago. These transgenerational sRNA effects showed association with gene functions related to grandparental drought and SA stress, which suggests functional relevance of the transgenerational effects. I used a reciprocal transplantation field experiment to investigate whether exposing dandelions to natural field stresses also triggers DNA methylation changes. The experiment revealed evidence of adaptive divergence between the populations, suggesting that non-native habitats are experienced as more stressful. However, under these field conditions no induction-based DNA methylation changes were found that persisted into offspring. By using AFLP and MS-AFLP screening of natural apomictic dandelion populations across a north-south transect in Europe I examined if natural, heritable DNA methylation variation reflects underlying genetic variation, or if it shows patterns that are not predictable from underlying genetics. I found that a large part of heritable DNA methylation differentiation along the north-south transect was correlated with genetic differentiation. However, a fraction of differentiation in heritable DNA methylation was independent from genetic variation. This suggests a potential of epigenetics to play an evolutionary role independently, at least to some extent, from underlying genetics. Overall, I found indications of epigenetic inheritance in apomictic dandelions. Whether epigenetic variation would result in adaptive phenotypic variation in nature and whether it would persist long enough to play a relevant role in adaptation remains unclear and requires further study.

AB - Epigenetic variation, such as changes in DNA methylations, regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) and chromatin modifications can be induced by environmental stress. There is increasing information that such induced epigenetic modifications can be transmitted to offspring, potentially mediating adaptive transgenerational responses to environmental changes. However, it is unclear if this phenomenon is common and relevant for adaptation under natural conditions. My thesis study aimed to examine epigenetic inheritance in common and widespread apomictic dandelions (Taraxacum officinale Wig.). Due to their asexual reproduction mode by producing clonal seeds offspring from seeds are genetically uniform and thus suitable to investigate epigenetic effects that are not confounded with genetic variation. I exposed apomictic dandelion lineages to drought and salicylic acid (SA) stress, which induces plant defense responses following pathogen attack, and found effects on patterns of DNA methylation up to two stress-free offspring generations after exposure. However, a heritable stress signal was not present in all tests and was stress- and lineage-dependent. Drought stress triggered a weak and lineage-dependent signal that was lost again in the second offspring generation. SA treatment revealed a stress-related increased rate of DNA methylation changes in the two offspring generations, but no stress signal was found in the stressed generation itself. I also observed changes in small RNA production due the drought and SA stress experienced two generations ago. These transgenerational sRNA effects showed association with gene functions related to grandparental drought and SA stress, which suggests functional relevance of the transgenerational effects. I used a reciprocal transplantation field experiment to investigate whether exposing dandelions to natural field stresses also triggers DNA methylation changes. The experiment revealed evidence of adaptive divergence between the populations, suggesting that non-native habitats are experienced as more stressful. However, under these field conditions no induction-based DNA methylation changes were found that persisted into offspring. By using AFLP and MS-AFLP screening of natural apomictic dandelion populations across a north-south transect in Europe I examined if natural, heritable DNA methylation variation reflects underlying genetic variation, or if it shows patterns that are not predictable from underlying genetics. I found that a large part of heritable DNA methylation differentiation along the north-south transect was correlated with genetic differentiation. However, a fraction of differentiation in heritable DNA methylation was independent from genetic variation. This suggests a potential of epigenetics to play an evolutionary role independently, at least to some extent, from underlying genetics. Overall, I found indications of epigenetic inheritance in apomictic dandelions. Whether epigenetic variation would result in adaptive phenotypic variation in nature and whether it would persist long enough to play a relevant role in adaptation remains unclear and requires further study.

KW - taraxacum officinale

KW - epigenetics

KW - inheritance

KW - apomixis

KW - dna methylation

KW - rna

KW - heritability

KW - stress

KW - taraxacum officinale

KW - epigenetica

KW - overerving

KW - apomixis

KW - dna-methylering

KW - rna

KW - heritability

KW - stress

U2 - 10.18174/386851

DO - 10.18174/386851

M3 - internal PhD, WU

SN - 9789462578715

PB - Wageningen University

CY - Wageningen

ER -