Epidemiology of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

E. Petersen, A. Kijlstra, M. Stanford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

55 Citations (Scopus)


Retinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii is the most important cause of posterior uveitis, whereby prevalence and incidence of ocular symptoms after infection depend on socio-economic factors and the circulating parasite genotypes. Ocular toxoplasmosis is more common in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean and parts of tropical Africa as compared to Europe and Northern America, and is quite rare in China. Ocular disease in South America is more severe than in other continents due to the presence of extremely virulent genotypes of the parasite. Drinking untreated water is considered the major source of Toxoplasma infection in developing countries, whereas in the Western world the consumption of raw or undercooked meat (products) is the most important cause. Since acquired infection with T. gondii is currently a more important cause of ocular toxoplasmosis compared to congenital infection, prevention should be directed not only toward pregnant women but toward the general population
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)68-75
JournalOcular Immunology and Inflammation
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • congenital toxoplasmosis
  • gondii infection
  • pregnant-women
  • risk-factors
  • acquired toxoplasmosis
  • southern brazil
  • united-states
  • prenatal treatment
  • waterborne toxoplasmosis
  • high prevalence


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