Epidemiology-driven approaches to surveillance in HPAI-vaccinated poultry flocks aiming to demonstrate freedom from circulating HPAIV

Timm Harder*, Sjaak de Wit, Jose L. Gonzales, Jeremy H.P. Ho, Paolo Mulatti, Teguh Y. Prajitno, Arjan Stegeman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Incursion pressure of high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) by secondary spread among poultry holdings and/or from infected migratory wild bird populations increases worldwide. Vaccination as an additional layer of protection of poultry holdings using appropriately matched vaccines aims at reducing clinical sequelae of HPAIV infection, disrupting HPAIV transmission, curtailing economic losses and animal welfare problems and cutting exposure risks of zoonotic HPAIV at the avian-human interface. Products derived from HPAIV-vaccinated poultry should not impose any risk of virus spread or exposure. Vaccination can be carried out with zero-tolerance for infection in vaccinated herds and must then be flanked by appropriate surveillance which requires tailoring at several levels: (i) Controlling appropriate vaccination coverage and adequate population immunity in individual flocks and across vaccinated populations; (ii) assessing HPAI-infection trends in unvaccinated and vaccinated parts of the poultry population to provide early detection of new/re-emerged HPAIV outbreaks; and (iii) proving absence of HPAIV circulation in vaccinated flocks ideally by real time-monitoring. Surveillance strategies, i.e. selecting targets, tools and random sample sizes, must be accommodated to the specific epidemiologic and socio-economic background. Methodological approaches and practical examples from three countries or territories applying AI vaccination under different circumstances are reviewed here.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101694
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


  • DIVA
  • High pathogenicity avian influenza
  • Immunity
  • Protection
  • Surveillance
  • Vaccination


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