EPG waveform characteristics of solenopsis mealybug stylet penetration on cotton

F. Huang, W.F. Tjallingii, P. Zhang, J. Zhang, Y. Lu, J. Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a polyphagous insect known to cause severe damage to cotton (especially transgenic varieties) in South Asia, and currently poses a serious threat in Asia and potentially elsewhere. Stylet penetration behavior of P. solenopsis on cotton was monitored using the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique (DC system) and the EPG characteristics were compared with those previously published from Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero and Planococcus citri (Risso). We identified and further characterized typical waveforms of A, B, C, and pd (together pathway), E1 and E2 (phloem), F (derailed stylet mechanics), and G (xylem). Five novel EPG aspects were distinguished in the EPG waveforms from P. solenopsis: (1) obvious B waveforms occurred following waveform A, (2) during waveform C, some aphid-like E1e waveforms were observed, (3) prolonged potential drops (pd) up to >1 h occurred with two continuously alternating sub-phases pd1 and pd2, (4) the pd1 waveform always occurred as the first waveform related to phloem sieve elements, preceding the other phloem waveforms (E), the labeling of which we changed to achieve a better comparison to the aphid E waveforms, and (5) waveform F, related to derailed stylet mechanics occurred but was not reported from other mealybugs so far. This is mainly a waveform morphology study to extend existing knowledge on mealybug EPGs to investigate mealybug-host plant interactions. Further experimental verification of waveform correlations with plant tissue positions of stylet tips and insect activities is still needed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47-54
JournalEntomologia Experimentalis et Applicata
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • manihoti matile-ferrero
  • feeding-behavior
  • cassava mealybug
  • phenacoccus-solenopsis
  • host plants
  • hemiptera pseudococcidae
  • circulifer-tenellus
  • beet leafhopper
  • homoptera
  • ultrastructure

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