The environment induces metabolic reprogramming of immune cells via specific signaling pathways. Recent studies have revealed that changes in cell metabolism affect key immune cell functions including cytokine production and migration. In diabetes, these functions are either insufficiently or excessively activated, translating into diabetes-associated complications, including increased susceptibility to infection and accelerated cardiovascular disease. Diabetes alters the abundance of environmental signals, including glucose, insulin, and lipids. Subsequently, changes in environmental signals drive metabolic reprogramming, impair immune cell function, and ultimately contribute to diabetes-associated complications. We review here recent studies on changes in innate immune cell metabolism, especially in myeloid cells, that are driven by environmental signals relevant to diabetes, and discuss therapeutic perspectives of targeting metabolism of immune cells in diabetes.