Most comparative studies of environmental reform have focused on the experiences of advanced, industrialized societies in Europe and the Americas. But can these research traditions be applied when studying processes of environmental reform in Asia, a continent of crucial importance for the global environment? Significant methodological challenges exist in operationalizing and measuring environmental reform in Asia and elsewhere. This article explores possibilities and requirements for addressing such questions and challenges through an analysis of data from official and other sources on trends in environmental performance in 11 market-oriented, industrialized, and industrializing states in Asia during the past several decades. What evidence is there of improvement (or deterioration) in environmental quality? How can changes be explained? To what extent can improvements be attributed to innovations in environmental policy and practice? Preliminary findings, interpretations, and assessments, along with a call for new comparative analyses of environmental reform in Asia, are presented.